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Deceptive Cadence
Deceptive Cadence un-stuffs the world of classical music, which is both fusty and ferociously alive.
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A Bicentennial For Boston's Handel And Haydn Society

Andrea Shea

Listen Now

6 min 1 sec   Harry Christophers leads the Handel and Haydn Society, now celebrating its bicentennial.

Harry Christophers leads the Handel and Haydn Society, now celebrating its bicentennial.

James Doyle/Handel and Haydn Society

Boston's Handel and Haydn Society is one of the oldest continuously running performing arts organizations in the country. To celebrate its bicentennial this season, the group made a new recording of a holiday perennial, Handel's Messiah, which also happens to be one of the first works it staged nearly 200 years ago. Still, the Handel and Haydn Society is very different from what it was when it started.

Today it's all about historically informed performance, or H.I.P. for short. The goal is to take audiences back in time so they can experience what music might have sounded like in the Baroque and Classical periods — roughly 1600 to 1830.

But the ensemble's executive director, Marie-Hélène Bernard, says the European musicians who founded this society 200 years ago were interested in performing contemporary music.

The Handel and Haydn Society, photographed in Boston's Symphony Hall in April 1915, a century after the group was founded.

The Handel and Haydn Society, photographed in Boston's Symphony Hall in April 1915, a century after the group was founded.

Handel and Haydn Society

"You have to think that in 1815," Bernard says, "Haydn has been dead for about six years, his music is still very much in vogue in Europe, and these musicians really wanted to bring it to America."

It took the founders almost a year to assemble their orchestra and chorus. Forty-four members signed on to a constitution in April, 1815. The society's first concert took place on the following Christmas Day at King's Chapel in Boston. The musicians performed excerpts from Handel's Messiah and Haydn's The Creation. A few years later H&H, as it's affectionately called, played the full compositions for the first time in the U.S. The Society performed many works that are now part of the regular repertoire but that were new in the day, Bernard says.

H&H performed at memorial services for presidents, including John Adams, and at the Emancipation Proclamation celebration in 1863.

For the first 100 years, voices dominated Handel and Haydn's aesthetic. For one performance of J.S. Bach's Saint Matthew Passion in 1871, the amateur chorus swelled to 700 singers. But in 1965 a single brutal review forced a major rethinking of the ensemble's direction. Boston Globe reviewer Michael Steinberg slammed the then H&H music director's pacing and neglect of Handel's intention.

The late conductor, keyboard player and scholar Christopher Hogwood.

Deceptive Cadence

Remembering Christopher Hogwood, An Evangelist For Early Music

"What Steinberg knew," current Globe classical critic Jeremy Eichler says, "was that there was this whole thing out there called the early music movement, and that it was taking shape in places like New York, where conductors like Thomas Dunn were thinking about this repertoire in entirely new ways. They were trying to figure out the numbers, how many singers were involved in these performances back in the composers' own days."

Thomas Dunn became H&H's music director in 1967. He embraced the historically informed performance idea by shrinking the chorus to about 30 professional singers.

Dunn also reduced the size of the orchestra from about 100 musicians to 32. Another big change came in 1986 when Christopher Hogwood — an early music champion — took the director post. He had the musicians switch to period instruments, which Eichler says aligned with the H.I.P. trend to find a more authentic sound.

In today's Handel & Haydn Society, Robert Nairn plays a copy of a double bass built in Vienna in 1730.

Hear the Music

"It has frets, it has 5 strings," Nairn explains. "This is technically a violone, so it's a precursor to a double bass in some ways." Modern basses have four strings and no frets. Nairn's strings are made of sheep gut.

"It has," Nairn says, "a much raspier sound, but it also has a much richer — many more high harmonics to ring off." The downside to sheep gut strings is that they go out of tune constantly.

Nairn also teaches at Juilliard and says he's seeing a surge of interest in period music among his students. That means there will likely be a new generation to draw from as the Handel & Haydn Society moves into its 3rd century.

Eichler marvels at H&H's endurance: "It's just an organization that has lived so many lives. And when you think of them all at once you get a sense of this enormous sweep. To have been in around in 1815 when James Madison was president, and to be around today, I think the H&H society has this amazing history that does open up a really fascinating window onto the history of classical music in Boston and the history of classical music in America."

The Handel & Haydn Society will be celebrating its bicentennial with performances this winter, spring and fall, capped with its 401st performance of Handel's Messiah next holiday season.

Copyright 2015 NPR. To see more, visit http://www.npr.org/.
1 month ago | |
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Best Classical Albums Of 2014

The Pulitzer Prize-winning Become Ocean by John Luther Adams is one of NPR Classical's favorite albums of 2014.

The Pulitzer Prize-winning Become Ocean by John Luther Adams is one of NPR Classical's favorite albums of 2014.

Cantaloupe

Most years, Tom Huizenga and I spend a lot of time after Thanksgiving and well into December battling over — or, more truthfully, having many friendly but spirited discussions about — which recordings should comprise our 10 favorites of the year. We each come up with a list of 10, and then we start hammering things out in some amount of exquisite music-nerd agony. Some albums we agree upon, some are our individual picks. We revisit our final 10 selections over and over again, revising and refining until we are both satisfied with a harmonious whole.

The pace in 2014 was vastly different. This year's highlights were so above and beyond that without any discussion, we each picked seven of the same releases. Though I'm not going to divulge which ones they were, there was such a bounty of phenomenal albums released this year that the selection process was a joy.

From John Dowland's elegant, elegiac and intimate pavanes, written at the dawn of the 17th century, to John (Coolidge) Adams' Saxophone Concerto and John Luther Adams' Become Ocean, both premiered just last year, the scope of what we loved reaches far and wide. — Anastasia Tsioulcas

Copyright 2014 NPR. To see more, visit http://www.npr.org/.
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Best Classical Albums Of 2014

The Pulitzer Prize-winning Become Ocean by John Luther Adams is one of NPR Classical's favorite albums of 2014.

The Pulitzer Prize-winning Become Ocean by John Luther Adams is one of NPR Classical's favorite albums of 2014.

Cantaloupe

Most years, Tom Huizenga and I spend a lot of time after Thanksgiving and well into December battling over — or, more truthfully, having many friendly but spirited discussions about — which recordings should comprise our 10 favorites of the year. We each come up with a list of 10, and then we start hammering things out in some amount of exquisite music-nerd agony. Some albums we agree upon, some are our individual picks. We revisit our final 10 selections over and over again, revising and refining until we are both satisfied with a harmonious whole.

The Best Music Of 2014

The Best Music Of 2014

The pace in 2014 was vastly different. This year's highlights were so above and beyond that without any discussion, we each picked seven of the same releases. Though I'm not going to divulge which ones they were, there was such a bounty of phenomenal albums released this year that the selection process was a joy.

From John Dowland's elegant, elegiac and intimate pavanes, written at the dawn of the 17th century, to John (Coolidge) Adams' Saxophone Concerto and John Luther Adams' Become Ocean, both premiered just last year, the scope of what we loved reaches far and wide. — Anastasia Tsioulcas

Copyright 2015 NPR. To see more, visit http://www.npr.org/.
1 month ago | |
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In The Italian Alps, Stradivari's Trees Live On

Christopher Livesay Marcello Mazzucchi, a retired forest ranger, stands in the Fiemme Valley in the Italian Alps. Renaissance luthiers such as Antonio Stradivari came here to handpick trees that would be crafted into the world's finest instruments.

Marcello Mazzucchi, a retired forest ranger, stands in the Fiemme Valley in the Italian Alps. Renaissance luthiers such as Antonio Stradivari came here to handpick trees that would be crafted into the world's finest instruments.

Graziano Panfili for NPR

Antonio Stradivari, the master violin maker whose instruments sell for millions of dollars today, has been dead for nearly three centuries. Only 650 of his instruments are estimated to survive.

But the forest where the luthier got his lumber is alive and well. And thanks to the surprising teamwork of modern instrument makers and forest rangers, Stradivari's trees are doing better than ever.

These spruce trees have been growing for hundreds of years in the Fiemme Valley, the same corner of the Italian Alps where Renaissance luthiers such as Stradivari, Guarneri and Amati hand-picked the trees that would be turned into some of the world's finest instruments. Thanks to a serendipitous combination of climate and altitude, these have come to be called "Il Bosco Che Suona" — The Musical Woods.

Marcello Mazzucchi, a retired forest ranger with an uncanny knack for spotting timber that's ideal for instruments, walks among the trees, tapping on their trunks.

  • Marcello Mazzucchi, who's known as Hide caption Marcello Mazzucchi, who's known as "The Tree Whisperer." "I've felled one million trees in my career," he says. "But in their place, 100 million more have grown up." Previous Next Graziano Panfili/Graziano Panfili for NPR

1 of 10

View slideshow i

Mazzucchi's skill has led some to call him "The Tree Whisperer," but he laughs off that nickname. "I'm really more of a tree listener," he says. "I observe, I touch them, sometimes I even hug them. Look carefully and they'll tell you their life story, their traumas, their joys, everything. Such humble creatures."

He goes from trunk to trunk, crossing flawed candidates off his list.

"This one over here was struck by lightning," he says. "Who knows what kind of sound its violin would make?"

Then he finds a contender: "It shoots up perfectly straight. It's very cylindrical. No branches at the bottom. If you ask me, there's a violin trapped inside."

Mazzucchi takes out a manual drill called a borer, and twists it like a corkscrew through the bark. He listens carefully to the knocking sound the borer makes each time it hits a new tree ring.

Pulling out a core sample shaped like a pencil, he concludes the tree is an excellent specimen. A lumberjack chops down trees like this one and carts them to a lumberyard nearby, where the spruce is milled into sections.

Local instrument maker Cecilia Piazzi examines a piece of that milled wood, and declares it "magnificent."

"We use it for making the table — that's the beautiful part on the front of a violin or cello, with the soundholes on the surface," Piazzi says. "Yes, this piece is the right piece. I can tell just by flicking it."

It takes months to complete a single instrument, which can cost over $10,000 — a bargain, when you consider a Stradivarius that came from the same forest can go for over $10 million.

But it's enough to keep this community humming. The Fiemme Valley is one of Italy's most prosperous areas, thanks in large part to these musical woods. And it's going to stay that way because people like the Tree Whisperer take care of it.

"I've felled one million trees in my career," Mazzucchi says. "But in their place, 100 million more have grown up."

Stradivari, Amati and Guarneri made the world's most prized violins and cellos with wood from Italy's Fiemme Valley.

Stradivari, Amati and Guarneri made the world's most prized violins and cellos with wood from Italy's Fiemme Valley.

Graziano Panfili for NPR

Before a tree hits the chopping block, Mazzucchi looks around to see if there are any tiny saplings struggling to grow nearby. If so, removing an adult tree will let more sun in and actually help the babies mature.

Bruno Cosignani, the head of the local forest service, explains that light is the limiting factor on tree growth.

"As soon as a tree falls down, those who were born and suffering in the shadows can start to grow more quickly," he says.

And centuries from now, those trees, too, might become musical instruments.

Copyright 2014 NPR. To see more, visit http://www.npr.org/.
1 month ago | |
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In The Italian Alps, Stradivari's Trees Live On

Christopher Livesay

Listen Now

5 min 4 sec   Marcello Mazzucchi, a retired forest ranger, stands in the Fiemme Valley in the Italian Alps. Renaissance luthiers such as Antonio Stradivari came here to handpick trees that would be crafted into the world's finest instruments.

Marcello Mazzucchi, a retired forest ranger, stands in the Fiemme Valley in the Italian Alps. Renaissance luthiers such as Antonio Stradivari came here to handpick trees that would be crafted into the world's finest instruments.

Graziano Panfili for NPR

Antonio Stradivari, the master violin maker whose instruments sell for millions of dollars today, has been dead for nearly three centuries. Only 650 of his instruments are estimated to survive.

But the forest where the luthier got his lumber is alive and well. And thanks to the surprising teamwork of modern instrument makers and forest rangers, Stradivari's trees are doing better than ever.

These spruce trees have been growing for hundreds of years in the Fiemme Valley, the same corner of the Italian Alps where Renaissance luthiers such as Stradivari, Guarneri and Amati hand-picked the trees that would be turned into some of the world's finest instruments. Thanks to a serendipitous combination of climate and altitude, these have come to be called "Il Bosco Che Suona" — The Musical Woods.

Marcello Mazzucchi, a retired forest ranger with an uncanny knack for spotting timber that's ideal for instruments, walks among the trees, tapping on their trunks.

  • Marcello Mazzucchi, who's known as Hide caption Marcello Mazzucchi, who's known as "The Tree Whisperer." "I've felled one million trees in my career," he says. "But in their place, 100 million more have grown up." Previous Next Graziano Panfili/Graziano Panfili for NPR

1 of 10

View slideshow i

Mazzucchi's skill has led some to call him "The Tree Whisperer," but he laughs off that nickname. "I'm really more of a tree listener," he says. "I observe, I touch them, sometimes I even hug them. Look carefully and they'll tell you their life story, their traumas, their joys, everything. Such humble creatures."

He goes from trunk to trunk, crossing flawed candidates off his list.

"This one over here was struck by lightning," he says. "Who knows what kind of sound its violin would make?"

Then he finds a contender: "It shoots up perfectly straight. It's very cylindrical. No branches at the bottom. If you ask me, there's a violin trapped inside."

Mazzucchi takes out a manual drill called a borer, and twists it like a corkscrew through the bark. He listens carefully to the knocking sound the borer makes each time it hits a new tree ring.

Pulling out a core sample shaped like a pencil, he concludes the tree is an excellent specimen. A lumberjack chops down trees like this one and carts them to a lumberyard nearby, where the spruce is milled into sections.

Local instrument maker Cecilia Piazzi examines a piece of that milled wood, and declares it "magnificent."

"We use it for making the table — that's the beautiful part on the front of a violin or cello, with the soundholes on the surface," Piazzi says. "Yes, this piece is the right piece. I can tell just by flicking it."

It takes months to complete a single instrument, which can cost over $10,000 — a bargain, when you consider a Stradivarius that came from the same forest can go for over $10 million.

But it's enough to keep this community humming. The Fiemme Valley is one of Italy's most prosperous areas, thanks in large part to these musical woods. And it's going to stay that way because people like the Tree Whisperer take care of it.

"I've felled one million trees in my career," Mazzucchi says. "But in their place, 100 million more have grown up."

Stradivari, Amati and Guarneri made the world's most prized violins and cellos with wood from Italy's Fiemme Valley.

Stradivari, Amati and Guarneri made the world's most prized violins and cellos with wood from Italy's Fiemme Valley.

Graziano Panfili for NPR

Before a tree hits the chopping block, Mazzucchi looks around to see if there are any tiny saplings struggling to grow nearby. If so, removing an adult tree will let more sun in and actually help the babies mature.

Bruno Cosignani, the head of the local forest service, explains that light is the limiting factor on tree growth.

"As soon as a tree falls down, those who were born and suffering in the shadows can start to grow more quickly," he says.

And centuries from now, those trees, too, might become musical instruments.

Copyright 2015 NPR. To see more, visit http://www.npr.org/.
1 month ago | |
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What's Your Top 100 Of The Last 100 Years?

Composer Steve Reich, whose Music for 18 Musicians pulled out ahead of Gershwin, Shostakovich, Bartok, Ives, Berg and all others in last year's Q2 poll.

Composer Steve Reich, whose Music for 18 Musicians pulled out ahead of Gershwin, Shostakovich, Bartok, Ives, Berg and all others in last year's Q2 poll.

Wonge Bergmann/Courtesy of the artist

For the past few years, member station Q2 in New York City has been enlisting listeners in a thought-provoking year-end poll. Forget the best music of the last year — what are the very best compositions of the last century?

What I really like is that by stipulating voters must choose music composed on or after January 1, 1915, a lot of what is still called "modern" music is ineligible: no more Rite of Spring, Pierrot Lunaire or Jeux. In this way, the conversation keeps evolving, year by year — and because the voting is open-ended, there's lots of room for a wide array of opinions to be heard.

So help us define tomorrow's musical canon by responding in the poll below. (If you're hankering for some suggestions, check out last year's favorites, with Schoenberg's String Trio at No. 100 and Reich's Music for 18 Musicians in the top spot.)

Voting closes Saturday, Dec. 20. Q2 will webcast the top choices during a marathon countdown at year's end, beginning Saturday, Dec. 27 — and they'd love to mention some of your comments during their marathon. If you'd like to be publicly identified, please be sure to include your name or Twitter handle in the poll. Happy choosing!

Copyright 2015 NPR. To see more, visit http://www.npr.org/.
2 months ago | |
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Stabat Mater: Young Composers Explore An Ancient Text

NPR Staff

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5 min 2 sec   The British choral group called The Sixteen have taken on new settings of the ancient Stabat Mater text.

The British choral group called The Sixteen have taken on new settings of the ancient Stabat Mater text.

Molina Visuals/The Sixteen

The words of the Stabat Mater come from an ancient Latin text describing Mary weeping at the cross over her son, Jesus. While the Catholic poem has been set to music by many — from Vivaldi to Arvo Pärt — three contemporary composers have put their own spin on the old verses.

Alissa Firsova was born in Moscow, but has lived in England since she was 4.

"I was most inspired by the end of the poem," Firsova says, "because it all leads up to Paradise, where the mother can be reunited with her son. And so I decided to focus on that and make the whole piece really positive, as opposed to a lot of Stabat Maters where they're concentrating on the weeping, weeping. And I think we've had enough of that in our world."

Additional Information:

Hear A Sample From Each Composer

Stabat Mater (Matthew Martin)

1 min 0 sec  

Stabat Mater (Tõnu Kõrvits)

1 min 0 sec  

Stabat Mater (Alissa Firsova)

1 min 0 sec  

The British choral group called The Sixteen has been singing the new settings of the Stabat Mater. "What we were looking for from these three new commissions was something that was very spiritual, very mystical," says the group's director, Harry Christophers. They recorded the new works for an album titled Stabat Mater: Spirit, Strength & Sorrow.

British composer Matthew Martin borrows music from a simple Catholic hymn called "Stabat Mater," while focusing on the variety of drama inherent in the text.

"In the Stabat Mater you have a range of emotions," Christophers says. "The mother weeping over her son and the range of emotions it goes through is quite amazing. Mothers suffer in all sorts of ways, through war, through violence. Every mother can tell a tale."

For Estonian composer Tõnu Kõrvits, working in a language beside his own provided a new challenge, but one tempered by the wealth of folk melodies from his homeland.

"It somehow comes unconsciously to my music, using Estonian folk tunes or scales from our folk tunes," Kõrvits says. "In the Stabat Mater I used a scale from Southeast Estonia, which is actually very Oriental. People use them in sad songs, like lamentations or if someone has died."

Kõrvits says the key, for him, comes at the last page. "The three 'Amens' I wrote at the very end," he says, "was a kind of goodbye for me to this text. Also I felt very thankful."

Copyright 2015 NPR. To see more, visit http://www.npr.org/.
2 months ago | |
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Guest DJ Jessye Norman: From Augusta To Valhalla

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5 min 57 sec   Soprano Jessye Norman leaves the Ed Sullivan Theater in New York on Thursday after taping the Late Show with David Letterman.

Soprano Jessye Norman leaves the Ed Sullivan Theater in New York on Thursday after taping the Late Show with David Letterman.

Ray Tamarra/WireImage

Hear The Complete Coversation

39 min 0 sec  

Hear The Songs

When it comes to sheer vocal opulence, it's tough to top Jessye Norman. There's a majesty and intimacy in her voice — immense as the Grand Canyon yet warm and confidential. The five-time Grammy winner is one of the most celebrated opera singers of our time. This year she published a memoir called Stand Up Straight and Sing! Last week she sang "Midnight Special" on David Letterman's Late Show and was feted like royalty at the Metropolitan Opera Guild's annual luncheon.

In this informal session of music and conversation, the soprano recalls her childhood in Augusta, Ga., where she found inspiration in an old 78 by the legendary Marian Anderson, whom she later befriended. Norman would go on to launch her career in Germany in the early 1970s, only to take a self-imposed hiatus from the stage to let her young voice mature, then return to triumph in opera houses around the world.

She voices equal enthusiasm for Wagner and Ellington, praises colleagues such as the "delicious" Yo-Yo Ma and describes the act of singing as an out-of-body experience. She has collaborated with choreographers, avant-garde producers and, when pressed, flirts with the idea of trying hip-hop.

Copyright 2015 NPR. To see more, visit http://www.npr.org/.
2 months ago | |
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For The Season, Trio Mediaeval Spans Centuries

NPR Staff Trio Mediaeval is (from left) Berit Opheim, Anna Maria Friman and Linn Andrea Fulgseth.

Trio Mediaeval is (from left) Berit Opheim, Anna Maria Friman and Linn Andrea Fulgseth.

Courtesy of the artist

For all those who just can't bear to hear "Jingle Bell Rock" or any of the other Yuletide earworms that will invade shopping malls and radio waves in the coming months, Norway's Trio Mediaeval has some new old music for the holiday season.

The group's new album, Aquilonis, features 15th-century English carols that member Linn Andrea Fuglseth found in a book of Old English medieval carols before Trio Mediaeval formed. In fact, "Alleluia: A New Werke," one of the carols on the album, is the reason she started Trio Mediaeval, she says.

"It was so spectacular when I first heard it," she tells NPR's Rachel Martin.

The album is not just carols. There are also Italian songs from the 12th century, Icelandic chants from the Middle Ages, a few modern works and traditional Norwegian folk melodies. The record also marks the first time that the trio of women has recorded with accompaniment from a special type of fiddle played by member Anna Maria Friman.

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Music Articles

Trio Mediaeval's Norwegian Christmas

"It's sort of the national instrument of Norway, which is called the hardingfele fiddle," Fuglseth explains. "It's a violin that's from a place called Hardanger in the west coast of Norway. And the special thing about this fiddle is that it has sympathetic strings underneath the main strings so you can hear more than one string at a time. The actual decoration on the instrument is very, very beautiful ebony pieces that are made into beautiful artwork on the actual violin. It's a beautiful instrument."

Medieval music is, in many ways, the domain of men. Most of the music the group — Fuglseth, Friman and Berit Opheim — performs was originally written for male voices.

"That's the nice thing," Fuglseth says. "That we can actually take some music that's written for men and do it for female voices. There were a few monasteries, also, for nuns in Europe in the Middle Ages and there's some music from there too. But we haven't done as much of that. I think it's nice to do things that's not expected."

Those who want to get as far away from American Christmas as possible will want to hear the full conversation at the audio link, in which Fuglseth describes the Norwegian version of the winter holiday. Hint: It includes a "very small Santa Claus."

Copyright 2014 NPR. To see more, visit http://www.npr.org/.
2 months ago | |
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For The Season, Trio Mediaeval Spans Centuries

NPR Staff

Listen Now

6 min 21 sec   Trio Mediaeval is (from left) Berit Opheim, Anna Maria Friman and Linn Andrea Fulgseth.

Trio Mediaeval is (from left) Berit Opheim, Anna Maria Friman and Linn Andrea Fulgseth.

Courtesy of the artist

For all those who just can't bear to hear "Jingle Bell Rock" or any of the other Yuletide earworms that will invade shopping malls and radio waves in the coming months, Norway's Trio Mediaeval has some new old music for the holiday season.

The group's new album, Aquilonis, features 15th-century English carols that member Linn Andrea Fuglseth found in a book of Old English medieval carols before Trio Mediaeval formed. In fact, "Alleluia: A New Werke," one of the carols on the album, is the reason she started Trio Mediaeval, she says.

"It was so spectacular when I first heard it," she tells NPR's Rachel Martin.

The album is not just carols. There are also Italian songs from the 12th century, Icelandic chants from the Middle Ages, a few modern works and traditional Norwegian folk melodies. The record also marks the first time that the trio of women has recorded with accompaniment from a special type of fiddle played by member Anna Maria Friman.

thumbnail

Music Articles

Trio Mediaeval's Norwegian Christmas

"It's sort of the national instrument of Norway, which is called the Hardanger fiddle," Fuglseth explains. "It's a violin that's from a place called Hardanger in the west coast of Norway. And the special thing about this fiddle is that it has sympathetic strings underneath the main strings so you can hear more than one string at a time. The actual decoration on the instrument is very, very beautiful ebony pieces that are made into beautiful artwork on the actual violin. It's a beautiful instrument."

Medieval music is, in many ways, the domain of men. Most of the music the group — Fuglseth, Friman and Berit Opheim — performs was originally written for male voices.

"That's the nice thing," Fuglseth says. "That we can actually take some music that's written for men and do it for female voices. There were a few monasteries, also, for nuns in Europe in the Middle Ages and there's some music from there too. But we haven't done as much of that. I think it's nice to do things that's not expected."

Those who want to get as far away from American Christmas as possible will want to hear the full conversation at the audio link, in which Fuglseth describes the Norwegian version of the winter holiday. Hint: It includes a "very small Santa Claus."

Copyright 2015 NPR. To see more, visit http://www.npr.org/.
2 months ago | |
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