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Dutch bassoonist Bram van Sambeek is known for his willingness (and his ability) to extend the boundaries of bassoon playing.  He's outdone himself in this intriguing video featuring the band ORBI (Oscillating Revenge of the Background Instruments) of which he is a founding member:

Bram van Sambeek was principal bassoonist of the Rotterdam Philharmonic Orchestra from 2002 until 2011 when he left to pursue a solo career.  Although few bassoonists possess the musical wherewithal to embark on a solo career, he is enough of a virtuoso superstar to pull it off.  In addition to his considerable classical chops, he is admirably at ease in the genres of jazz, rock, heavy metal and world music.

Bram's intrepid explorations have uncovered hitherto unheard of options for bassoonists beyond the orchestral world.  But that doesn't mean we can stop practicing; his jaw-dropping command of the instrument is what fuels his freedom to conquer the outer realms.


15 days ago |
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Thousands of union members showed up from all over the U.S. on July 12 and 13, 2018 for a national rally in Columbus, Ohio to save multi-employer pensions.  There was a hearing in the Ohio Statehouse on July 13th on the Butch Lewis Act.

It's a safe assumption that every union musician in the U.S. is aware that the American Federation of Musicians Employers' Pension Fund (AFM-EPF) has been in "critical" status since 2010 (following the recession of 2007-9). There has been a deluge of information and opinions on this matter flooding the internet, and it's rather daunting to attempt to separate fact from fiction.  Basically, the Fund has developed a a huge gap between its liabilities and its assets.  While its assets are growing due to increases in wages and due to earnings from investments, the benefits being paid to retirees far exceed the growth of the Fund's assets.  This problem is not unique to the AFM; 114 multi-employer  pension funds in the U.S. are expected to become insolvent over the next 20 years.  

Peter de Boor, editor of the International Conference of Symphony and Opera Musicians' (ICSOM's) official publication Senza Sordino, recently published this article to help shed light on the situation.

Shortly thereafter, the Musicians for Pension Security (a pension awareness group made up of AFM union members who are currently vested in the AFM-EPF Pension Fund) issued this response
to Peter de Boor's article.

Who's right?  Who's wrong?  Is there a solution to the problem?

In November 2017 Senator Sherrod Brown (D-OH) introduced the Butch Lewis Act of 2017 
(S. 2147/H.R. 4444).  This legislation is not a government bail-out; instead, it restores solvency to multi-employer pension plans by allowing the plans to borrow the money they need to remain solvent.  The actuaries of the AFM-EPF have confirmed that the Butch Lewis Act would address the financial issues of the AFM-EPF by providing the financial support to prevent insolvency in the event that the fund enters "critical and declining" status.  The Musicians for Pension Security also supports this legislation.

The Butch Lewis legislation was not included in the February 2018 Congressional budget deal, but a Joint Select Committee on the Solvency of Multi-employer Pension Plans was authorized to closely examine the multi-employer pension crisis and to develop legislation by November 30, 2018.  Now is the time to convince lawmakers to take this matter seriously, prior to that November 30th deadline.

We musicians have the ability to make our voices heard in Congress by using the contact information and suggestions provided by the American Federation of Musicians.

The Musicians for Pension Security offers these suggestions for taking action.

Here's a user-friendly online petition in support of the Butch Lewis Act.

If you haven't yet taken action in support of the Butch Lewis Act, please do so now for the sake of your retirement income and the retirement income of musicians nationwide.   

The Musicians for Pension Security (MPS) also proposes a solution based upon increased contributions.  Specifically, the MPS suggests 6% annual increases in contributions to the Fund over the next 5 years and 2.9% annual increases thereafter in order to prevent future cuts in benefits.  As a musician who is currently involved in Collective Bargaining Agreement negotiations, I can state with surety that it would be impossible to talk my orchestra and/or its administration into increasingour contributions to the AFM-EPF.  Instead, everyone is lamenting the fact that we're "trapped" in the Fund.  While it does seem plausible that increasing contributions (above the increases which occur as a result of wage increases) might solve the problem, it doesn't seem possible because of the Fund's unfortunate reputation.  That's why I believe that the Butch Lewis Act, endorsed by both AFM and MPS, is our best available solution at this time.  Let's do what we can to support it!


1 month ago |
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Many bassoonists learn to play the bassoon during middle school; that's the ideal time to establish good playing habits.  The first important habit presented here is playing position, which includes embouchure and position of the reed in the mouth.  Next a few basic fingering issues are addressed, followed by the use of air and embouchure.


In order to produce the best possible sound on the bassoon, there are certain basic recommendations for playing position. First, establish your sitting position without the bassoon.  Sit comfortably (but sit up straight) in the chair with your head straight (not tilted up).  Add the bassoon, adjusting the seat strap backward, forward, up or down to fit the bassoon comfortably into your original position.   

Bassoon playing position
 Make sure that the bocal is positioned correctly.  Usually the bocal aligns best between the pad of the A key and the C key.  The left thumb keys should be  pointing at you, not off to your left.  The instrument should be balanced, with its weight shared by your right thigh and your left hand.

The next important aspect of playing position is the embouchure.  Cover your teeth completely with your upper and lower lips and then drop your jaw, producing what is referred to as an overbite embouchure.  Bassoon embouchure is not symmetrical - there should be little or no pressure on the reed applied by the lower lip or jaw.  The lower lip simply encases the reed, otherwise staying out of the way.  There are other types of bassoon embouchures but this is the type that has worked best for my students and myself.

Bassoon overbite embouchure - drop your jaw and don't push up on the reed!
The next critical aspect of playing position is the position of the reed in the mouth.  I tell my students to place about half of the blade of the reed in the mouth.  If this issue is unaddressed, the tendency of most students is to insert too much of the reed into the mouth, resulting in difficulty in controlling sound, intonation and dynamics.

Reed position - only half of the blade should be inserted into the player's mouth.


Bassoon students are often unsure of fingerings, which is understandable considering the complexity of certain bassoon fingerings and the fact that many notes have multiple fingerings (some better than others!).  There aren't many patterns or rules, unfortunately, but there are a few.....for example, I was surprised to find out during a recent master class that none of the students could fully answer the question "Which notes require the whisper key?".  They knew that the whisper key was needed for Bb1 through F2 (the numbers indicate the bassoon octave, so our lowest note is Bb1, and the octave higher is Bb2, etc.) but beyond that, they were uncertain.

Here are a few rules which should be memorized:

The "pancake" key takes the place of the whisper key for the very lowest notes (Bb1-Db1).  That's because the player's left thumb is unable to reach the regular whisper key while also activating the low C, low B and low Bb keys.
The pancake key, which substitutes for the whisper key.

The reason why the left thumb whisper key can't be activated at the same time as the low C, low B or low Bb key (it would be physically impossible).
The purpose of both the pancake key and the whisper key is to close the whisper key pad which covers the hole in the nub of the bocal:
The whisper key pad covers the hole in the nub of the bocal.  The whisper key pad is activated by either the left thumb whisper key or the right thumb pancake key.

It's important to regularly test your pancake key to be sure that it's totally closing the whisper key pad over its hole on the bocal.  If it's not, just add some tape (masking tape, duct tape, etc.) to the connector extending from the tenor joint to the "foot" extending from the rod of the pancake.  This is what it looks like:
Orange duct tape added to the connector.  This enables the pancake to fully close the whisper key over the hole on the bocal
These are the notes which require the pancake key (in place of the whisper key):
Bb1 through Db1

These are the notes which require the whisper key:
              D1 through Ab2,                             G3,        G#3

There is another variation of the whisper key issue.......there are 5 notes on the bassoon which require both the whisper key AND a half hole in the first finger left hand.  These are the notes which require whisper key PLUS half hole:
             F#2        G2,        G#2,       G3,      G#3

First finger left hand half hole

There is also confusion about when to use the little finger left hand Eb key (also known as the upper auxiliary key).  These are the notes requiring the Eb (upper auxiliary) key:
             Eb1,    (Eb2),         G2,     E3 and all notes above E3

The Eb or upper auxiliary key
Eb2 has many different fingerings, some of which require the Eb (auxiliary) key.  My preferred fingering for Eb2 does not require the Eb key, but sometimes I use one of the fingerings which does require it.  It's very important for students to remember that as a rule, the Eb (upper auxiliary) key is required for all of the high notes beginning with E3.

These are the few fingering rules which apply to the bassoon, and hopefully memorizing these rules will help students begin to master the vast fingering chart for our instrument.


The pitch and dynamics are controlled by air and embouchure as follows: 

If you use more air, the pitch rises and the sound gets louder.  
If you use less air, the pitch drops and the sound gets softer.  
If you tighten your embouchure, the pitch rises and the sound gets softer.  
If you loosen your embouchure, the pitch drops and the sound gets louder.  

Awareness of these rules helps bassoonists gain control of what comes out of the bassoon!

For more in-depth information, here's a blog post for high school bassoonists.


1 month ago |
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There are many aspects of bassoon playing which are important for high school-aged bassoonists such as equipment, playing position, air and embouchure, finger technique, effective practicing, musicianship, tonguing and tone production.  Here are a few basic pointers from each of those categories which may be helpful.


Once the student has identified a reliable reed source, the lifespan of each reed may be maximized by following one important rule:  Always allow reeds to dry out after playing.  

How long does a reed last?  It varies according to whether or not the reed has dried out after playing, the level of acidity in the player's saliva and the amount of playing on the reed.  For most high school students, a reed lasts a few weeks or even months.  (However, it's common for a student to insist on newer reeds as his/her standards rise.)   Serious high school students often learn to make reeds.

What should reeds be stored in?  A small tin container such the type used for Sucrets or Altoids works well and costs little.  A nail and a hammer may be used to puncture a few air holes in the container so that air reaches the reeds.
tin reed cases with air holes made with hammer and nail

Here's an easy and effective way to improve a bassoon reed.  If the tip seems too open, just take a pair of pliers and squeeze the top wire from top to bottom:
Closing the tip by squeezing the top wire from top to bottom

If the tip seems too closed, squeeze from side to side:
Opening the tip by squeezing the top wire from side to side
The best part of this reed fix is that if it doesn't work (or if it makes the reed worse) it's reversible!  Don't be afraid to experiment with this.  Many a bad reed has been rectified using this method.


If a student has a choice of instruments, it's best to test each one to identify the one which is most cooperative.  A private bassoon teacher will be able to ensure that the instrument is working properly.  One common problem is that the connector between the boot and the tenor joint is often out of adjustment so that the pancake key does not completely close the whisper key pad on the bocal.  That problem will cause the low notes to balk, and it's an easy problem to resolve using a piece of tape around the connector to make it thicker.

If the student's family is fortunate enough to be able to afford to purchase a bassoon, several of my students have recently purchased Fox Renard model 240 bassoons from Midwest Musical Imports for less than $10,000.  The Fox 240 is an excellent instrument especially considering its relatively low price.  I always remind parents that the bassoon can be sold later if for any reason it's no longer needed.  Bassoons retain their value more than most other instruments.

Bassoons are delicate and must be properly cared for.  Bassoons should never be laid down flat on any surface due to the probability of moisture reaching the pads.  If it's not possible to keep the bassoon upright, then it should be disassembled and placed in its case.  

Each time the bassoon is disassembled, the tenor joint and the boot must be swabbed with pull-through cloth (such as silk) swabs.  The best swabs have a string (tail) on each end in case the swab gets stuck inside the bassoon. 


It's important for students to use the best bocal available and to understand that each bocal has a number between 0 and 3.  The higher the number, the longer the bocal, and the lower the pitch.   Since bocals vary greatly, t's a good idea for a student to try all available bocals and choose the one which plays best in tune and has the best sound.  Bocals are extremely fragile and should be handled with great care.

The bocal must be kept clean it order for it to function properly.   A silk bocal swab (with a string on each end in case it becomes stuck) is the best tool for cleaning, and should be used approximately once a month.  Wash the swab after each cleaning.  
bocal swab, with a tail on each end
If no bocal swab is available, twist the ends of three pipe cleaners together and push the pipe cleaners through the bocal, rinsing with water afterwards.

Seat strap and neck strap support

Bassoons require a seat strap for playing in the seated position. The best type of seat strap is the cup style.  The cup strap allows easy adjusting of the position of the bassoon.
Cup style bassoon seat strap
A neck strap, sling strap or harness is required for playing in the standing position.  For either sitting or standing, the support strap should be adjusted so that the bassoon is in the best possible and most comfortable position for playing.  Saxophone neck straps work well for bassoon. I recommend the Wittman Spinstrap Model 700 for sax or bassoon - it's the most comfortable support for standing with a bassoon that I've found.  Unlike typical neckstraps which can be very uncomfortable, the Spinstrap is more like a sling which goes over the left shoulder and under the right arm.
Wittman Spinstrap for Saxes and Bassoons

Placement of bocal

The bocal should be aligned between the high A key pad and the high C key pad in order to achieve the best balance (with the weight of the bassoon evenly distributed between the right outer thigh and the inside of the left hand near the base of the forefinger).  When the position of the bocal is correct, the left thumb keys point toward the player, not off to the player's left.
the bocal is positioned here between the pad of the high A key and the pad of the high C key

Posture of the player

The bassoonist should sit up straight and comfortably in the chair, leaning slightly forward rather than sitting back in the chair.  The player's head should always remain looking straight ahead, not tilted up or down to accommodate the bassoon.  The seat strap should be adjusted so that the bocal heads straight into the player's mouth without the player having to adjust.  Adjust the BASSOON, not the posture.
Bassoon playing position

Formation of embouchure

Bassoon embouchure is formed by wrapping the upper and lower lips over the teeth and dropping the jaw.  No lips should be showing, and most of the pressure should be applied to the reed from above, with the jaw just dropped down and not pushing up.
With an overbite embouchure, pressure is applied to the reed from above, and the player is careful to avoid pushing up on the reed!

Placement of reed in the mouth

About half of the blade of the reed should be placed in the player's mouth.  Many students insert the reed too far.  As the player ascends up the range, gradually more of the reed is inserted.  As the player descends, gradually less reed is taken into the mouth.
Only half of the blade is placed in the player's mouth.

Also, it's important for the player to beware of pushing up on the reed with the jaw, which is a common problem.  It's best to think of applying pressure on the reed from above, while relaxing and dropping the jaw.  Bassoon students often play sharp, and the best way to avoid that is to be sure that the pressure on the reed is coming from above, not pushing up from below (the jaw should be relaxed and dropped down).  Generally, a sharp, constricted sound indicates a too-tight embouchure.


Bassoon students are often unsure of fingerings, which is understandable considering the complexity of certain bassoon fingerings and the fact that many notes have multiple fingerings (some better than others!).  There aren't many patterns or rules, unfortunately, but there are a few.....for example, I was surprised to find out during a recent master class that none of the students could fully answer the question "Which notes require the whisper key?".  They knew that the whisper key was needed for Bb1 through F2 (the numbers indicate the bassoon octave, so our lowest note is Bb1, and the octave higher is Bb2, etc.) but beyond that, they were uncertain.

Here are a few rules which should be memorized:

The "pancake" key takes the place of the whisper key for the very lowest notes (Bb1-Db1).  That's because the player's left thumb is unable to reach the regular whisper key while also activating the low C, low B and low Bb keys.
The pancake key, which substitutes for the whisper key.

The reason why the left thumb whisper key can't be activated at the same time as the low C, low B or low Bb key (it would be physically impossible).
The purpose of both the pancake key and the whisper key is to close the whisper key pad which covers the hole in the nub of the bocal:
The whisper key pad covers the hole in the nub of the bocal.  The whisper key pad is activated by either the left thumb whisper key or the right thumb pancake key.

It's important to regularly test your pancake key to be sure that it's totally closing the whisper key pad over its hole on the bocal.  If it's not, just add some tape (masking tape, duct tape, etc.) to the connector extending from the tenor joint to the "foot" extending from the rod of the pancake.  This is what it looks like:
Orange duct tape added to the connector.  This enables the pancake to fully close the whisper key over the hole on the bocal
These are the notes which require the pancake key (in place of the whisper key):
Bb1 through Db1

These are the notes which require the whisper key:
              D1 through Ab2,                             G3,        G#3

There is another variation of the whisper key issue.......there are 5 notes on the bassoon which require both the whisper key AND a half hole in the first finger left hand.  These are the notes which require whisper key PLUS half hole:
             F#2        G2,        G#2,       G3,      G#3

First finger left hand half hole

 There is also confusion about when to use the little finger left hand Eb key (also known as the upper auxiliary key).  These are the notes requiring the Eb (upper auxiliary) key:
             Eb1,    (Eb2),         G2,     E3 and all notes above E3

The Eb or upper auxiliary key
Eb2 has many different fingerings, some of which require the Eb (auxiliary) key.  My preferred fingering for Eb2 does not require the Eb key, but sometimes I use one of the fingerings which does require it.  It's very important for students to remember that as a rule, the Eb (upper auxiliary) key is required for all of the high notes beginning with E3.

These are the few fingering rules which apply to the bassoon, and hopefully memorizing these rules will help students begin to master the vast fingering chart for our instrument.

Air and embouchure

The two factors which bassoonists use to change pitch and dynamics are air and embouchure, as follows:

Using more air results in higher pitch and louder dynamics.  
Using less air results in lower pitch and lower dynamics.  
Tightening the embouchure results in higher pitch and lower dynamics.  
Loosening the embouchure results in lower pitch and louder dynamics.


A good way to practice abdominal breathing is to lie on the floor belly up with a book placed on the lower abdomen.  The goal is to make the book rise upon inhaling and sink down upon exhaling. Then the abdominal breathing may be used to practice steady, controlled long tones on the bassoon, producing straight tones at first and later adding crescendos and diminuendos.

Developing a concept of sound and musicianship

It's a good idea for bassoon students to have a goal of playing with a desirable tone.  There are many YouTube videos of superstar bassoonists such as Sophie Dartigalongue, Nadina Mackie Jackson, Arthur Weisberg, Klaus Thunemann, Min-Ho Lee, Judith LeClair and Gilbert Audin.  Musicianship may be learned from performances and recording of any great musician, and a student's exposure to great musicians should certainly not be limited to bassoonists!  It's advisable to spend considerable time listening to recordings of world class string players, singers and pianists in order to develop a sense of musicianship.


Once the student has good control of long tones, it's time to begin developing vibrato, which may be thought of as a regular pulsation in the sound caused by bursts of air.   These pulsations are best practiced in strict rhythm in order to build the abdominal muscles involved in vibrato production.   There are many ways to think of producing beginning vibrato, such as imitating the sound of a dying car battery, or using a "Ha!Ha!Ha!Ha!" or panting or laughing.  Bassoon students often benefit from watching string players produce vibrato with the left hand; vibrato obviously cannot be seen when produced by a wind player.

In general, the speed of vibrato in general varies from 4 beats per second to 7 beats per second, with 5 or 6 per second falling into the normal range.  Lower pitched voices and instruments often tend to use a somewhat slower vibrato than higher pitched instruments.  Advanced musicians are able to vary the speed and intensity of the vibrato.

To learn vibrato on the bassoon, set the metronome at 60 and begin pulsating 2 times per beat.  Gradually, over the course of weeks or months, increase the pulsations up to 7 per beat (which is quite fast).


Accurate rhythm and a steady pulse are essential for a strong musical performance on any instrument.  Rhythm should never be neglected during practicing, and regular use of a metronome is recommended.

For more advanced musicians, rubato is used to create musically interesting phrases.  Within the context of a steady pulse, some notes are stretched while others are compressed in order to fit into the steady pulse framework, allowing emphasis of certain parts of the phrase - that's what the term rubato refers to.

For sight-reading, rhythm should always be top priority; other flaws may be overlooked, but rhythmic accuracy is essential.

Practicing effectively

It's important to avoid practicing mistakes!   That means stopping and addressing any problems as they arise during practice sessions.  The most basic rule of practicing is to slow it down.  Sometimes a technical problem is resolved simply by slowing down the tempo and playing the passage a few times slowly.

If a note is out of tune, the embouchure, air or fingering may be manipulated to resolve the problem.  Tuning apps make it easy to identify issues.  If the rhythm is inaccurate, a metronome app might come in handy. Subdividing is a very helpful technique for improving rhythmic accuracy.

If the fingerings are sloppy, which is so often the case for bassoonists, it's very helpful to listen closely so that the exact notes causing the problem may be identified.  The problem intervals may benefit from being played slowly (and accurately) many times before adding the surrounding notes.

Unless the passage in question is written all slurred, I recommend eliminating all articulations so that the passage is all slurred.  Once the passage can be played evenly all slurred, then add the articulations as printed.  It's very common for students to blame the tongue for problems which are actually caused by uneven fingerings.

Another approach is to play the entire passage until reaching the first problem note.  Then that note is held with a fermata. Next, with great conviction, the fingers are clicked into the correct fingering for the next note, with a fermata also on that one, and so on throughout the problematic part of the passage.  After the problem notes are finished, the passage is completed as written (so that only the problematic notes have fermatas).  This approach should be repeated several times.

Afterwards, the passage is played as written.  It's possible that there will be a new problem created by the corrections which just took place, and the same technique using fermatas and clicking fingerings may be applied again to the new problem notes.

How do you know when a passage is mastered?  If you can play it perfectly 10 times in a row, then you're in good shape!

What to practice

Scales and arpeggios are the building blocks of all of the music we're called upon to perform, and that's why it's so important to familiarize ourselves with all of the major and minor scales and arpeggios.  Long tones are essential for developing control of the air and embouchure (which control the pitch and dynamics as well as sound).  Bassoon students usually work on etudes also such as those by Weissenborn and Milde.
Bassoon etude books


In order to begin a note on the bassoon with a graceful and clean "attack", it's necessary to have the embouchure and air set up in advance.  Think of the tongue as a valve which starts and stops the flow of air.  The player sets up the air and embouchure with the tongue against the reed so that it doesn't yet vibrate.  When, with the correct embouchure and air in place for the note being played, the tongue is pulled back, allowing the air to vibrate the reed.  That technique results in a very desirable attack. Then when the tongue is again placed against the reed, the note ends.

Many bassoonists also employ the technique known as double tonguing, and some begin learning it as early as high school.  Basically, double tonguing requires the player to begin the first note with the tongue in front as usual, but the second note is articulated with the tongue in the back of the mouth.  The spoken syllables would be "TaKaTaKa......etc." or "DuGuDuGu....etc.".   Here's a blog post I wrote about learning to double tongue on the bassoon.


Flicking is a technique, unique to bassoon playing, which improves or enables the response of certain notes (A2, Bb3, B3, C3 and D3.....see below), especially when the note is being slurred to from a note in the lower range.  The left thumb briefly swipes open one of the left thumb keys (the high A, high C or high D key) at the beginning of the flicked note.  These are the flick notes and the thumb key used to flick each note (Bb3 can use either the A key or the C key):

Recommended reading

The Art of Wind Playing by Arthur Weisberg (currently out of print but available from Amazon and various other sources).
The Art of Wind Playing


1 month ago |
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Berlioz's epic masterpiece Symphonie Fantastique, written in 1830, radically expanded the realm of symphonic music.  Beethoven had just died three years earlier (in 1827) after dramatically pushing the boundaries himself.  While Beethoven's influence is evident in  Symphonie Fantastique, there is no question that Berlioz also veered off the path, marching to a very different drummer.

It's all about Harriet Smithson, the Irish actress with whom Berlioz was obsessed.  Inspired by the programmatic nature of Beethoven's Pastorale Symphony (no. 6), the actual title of Berlioz's work is An Episode in the Life of an Artist (Symphonie Fantastique was a subtitle).  Of course, the artist was Berlioz, and the episode portrayed his self-destructive love for Harriet.

Apparently Berlioz was highly emotional, to the point some might consider unstable.  He used opium in the attempt to calm his nerves, which was a fairly common approach at the time.  I'll never forget the reaction of my music history class at Eastman when we found out that Berlioz had composed this work while on wasn't just a story about someone who turned to opium due to romantic frustrations....Berlioz actually wrote the piece (or at least parts of the piece) while on opium!  It left such an impression that every time I think of Symphonie Fantastique I immediately think of opium.

Berlioz described his love for Harriet as "that rage, that fury, that delirium which takes possession of all one’s faculties, which renders one capable of anything".  He fell in love with her while watching her act onstage, and subsequently he wrote impassioned letters which she summarily ignored.  Symphonie Fantastique was the perfect outlet for his wild emotions.  And it was successful....once she realized the piece was about her, she agreed to receive him, whereupon he threatened to overdose on opium if she wouldn't marry him.  He proceeded to ingest the opium in front of her, at which point she became hysterical and agreed to the marriage.  He then pulled an antidote out of his pocket and ingested that, ensuring his survival from the overdose.  They married once he recovered.  (Why has no one in Hollywood made a movie out of this story?  The film score has already been written!)

Bassoon players generally think of Symphonie Fantastique as a huge bassoon piece.  It stands out in the bassoon orchestral repertoire in that it features all four bassoonists in unison soli passages.  Why did Berlioz score this piece for 4 bassoons, while only 2 flutes (2nd doubling on piccolo), 2 oboes (2nd doubling on English horn) and 2 clarinets (second doubling on Eb clarinet) made it into the score?  The explanation may be found in the typical structure of a Parisian orchestra during the 1800s.  Due to the nature of the French basson, 4 bassoons were used in Parisian orchestras while there were only 2 of each of the other woodwind instruments (2 flutes, 2 oboes, 2 clarinets).  The French basson had a narrower bore than the German bassoon and its sound was decidedly lighter, drier and sweeter than the German bassoon.  Its delicate sound was probably easily overpowered by other instruments.  One can only imagine what Berlioz would think of today's more muscular bassoons.  Might he be tempted to re-orchestrate for only 2 bassoons?

There are only a couple of exposed passages for the first bassoon alone, one at the very opening:

The first bassoonist will know exactly where to place the triplet notes after observing the score (below).  Also it should be noted that the second measure (ppp) is softer than the first measure (p).  And Berlioz, the inveterate extremist, asks for a diminuendo once the ppp dynamic is attained!

A little further into the movement, all four bassoons are called upon to slur a succession of G octave triplets:
from mvt. 1 of Symphonie Fantastique
Earlier in the movement (measure 10 to be exact) the cellos slur similar triplets (from D down to G) and it might be a good idea for the bassoonists to listen carefully and later attempt to match that sound, which is quite calm and even.  To accomplish this, I think it's best not to attempt to slur the downward G octaves.  Some of the low Gs might speak on time, but what about the ones which don't?  And what about the fact that 4 bassoonists, all of whom struggle with that slur, are doing this at once, thereby quadrupling the potential for awkward squawks and late arrivals of the lower G?  Although the cellos and basses are also playing along on the above passage, they're so quiet that the bassoonists usually can't hear them while playing.  I advise lightly tonguing the low Gs so that it sounds as legato as possible, while eliminating the risk of balking low Gs.  Don't be a hero!  In other words, don't sacrifice the musical outcome for the sake of "heroically" playing exactly what's printed in your part.  (This advice also applies to missed attacks.....rather than jump in at random with your missed note, it's preferable to either leave the note out or re-attempt to enter at a musically sensible moment.)  This passage is a good example of a situation where it may be more beneficial to the ensemble if the bassoonists lightly tongue the problematic slurred notes.  If the tonguing is discreet enough, no one will know the difference.  In the words of the great French bassoonist Maurice Allard, when it comes to this type of downward slur, the bassoonist should "Cheat, but cheat sweetly, like when you lie to your wife!".

There is another "solo" later in the first movement in which the 1st bassoon plays the recurring idée fixe theme (which represents Harriet) with the flute and clarinet:

It's important to add to the drama by honoring Berlioz's markings assiduously.  Of course, it's also the bassoonist's responsibility to provide a solid pitch foundation in the lower octave to support the flute and clarinet throughout the passage.  The idée fixe ends at bar 12 above.  At that point, the first and third bassoon in unison join the low strings in a somewhat exposed passage.  Intonation may be an issue here, especially for the lower notes.  Accurate intonation may require dramatic manipulation of the embouchure and position of the reed in the mouth - we bassoonists learn to do whatever it takes to keep the pitch down.

This is the only passage in the entire piece which might be considered a true bassoon solo, albeit a brief one:

It occurs near the end of the first movement.  Again, the crescendos must be brought out as requested by Berlioz, although the solo is generally calm in character.  

The first movement ends with a serene chorale: 

This is a prime example of why we practice long tones.  The bassoons are in octaves here, with the two lower parts being clearly more difficult considering the challenges of control and intonation on low Fs and low Cs.

For the second movement Berlioz trades the 4 bassoons for 2 harps.....the 4 bassoons are tacet while the 2 harps come to life for this movement only.  That means that the bassoon section gets to kick back and enjoy listening to the exciting whirlwind of a waltz while conserving energy for the heaving lifting of the remaining 3 movements.

Berlioz calls upon all 4 bassoons for many of the semi-exposed tutti passages of the 3rd movement. 

The 4 bassoons are in unison with the low strings.  As always, attention must be paid to Berlioz's details of dynamics and articulation.  Only some of the notes are to be played staccato, and the rest should be noticeably more legato.  Be alert for tempo changes such as the poco animato beginning 3 before 42.  Playing softly enough to be able to hear the cellos is advised, if acoustics allow. 

The truly heavy-duty bassoon soli passages begin in movement 4, the March to the Scaffold.  In this movement Berlioz, convinced that his love will be forever unrequited, poisons himself with opium.  The desperation of the situation is expressed by the 4 bassoons in unison:

The review of the Columbus Symphony's recent performance of Symphonie Fantastique mentioned the "shrieking bassoons".  I believe the reviewer was referring to the above passage, which benefits from being played with the strength which was surely lacking in the French basson of Berlioz's day.  After the first mf phrase, there is a crescendo to the high A and the next phrase.  Of course it's important for the 4 bassoons to play these notes with matching intonation.  The pickups at the beginning of each phrase (the sixteenth followed by dotted eighth followed by sixteenth) should be very incisive, almost forceful.  I suggest adding a crescendo in the first phrase up to the high G, and using vibrato on the quarter notes to add emphasis and intensity.  The final quarter note of each phrase (except the third phrase, which dies down at the end) should be held for full value or even longer for extended resonance.  This is a very exciting passage, especially when the conductor gives the bassoons free rein to shriek.

Soon after that, the 4 bassoons engage in a progression (a march, as it were) of eighth notes.  This is one of the two most famous bassoon excerpts in the piece, and is sometimes featured on auditions.

Notice that the dynamic is piano.   It's common to hear this passage played rather aggressively, almost angrily.  Would Berlioz have requested the soft dynamic, especially from the French basson, if he wanted this passage to sound aggressive?  Probably not.  I asked the Columbus Symphony bassoon section to adhere to the p dynamic, and I was pleased with the result.  One benefit of playing at that dynamic level is that each bassoonist can hear the other bassoonists better, and the ensemble benefits.  Rushing is perhaps less likely to occur.  Also, there's no doubt that the softer sound imitates the French basson sound to which which Berlioz was accustomed.   I will admit that during the concerts I did add crescendos as the line ascended and vice versa, as my teacher K. David Van Hoesen recommended, to add a bit of spice.

The division of the bassoon parts varies from one edition to another.  In some editions, the first and second bassoon parts are coupled and in other editions, the first and third parts are coupled.  The two pairs of bassoons play basically two parts, which join together in unison for the important bassoon ensemble soli.  At the moment in history when Berlioz composed this work,  the orchestra's 4 bassoonists doubled two parts.  Berlioz was breaking the mold when he decided to make harmonic use of the fact that he had 4 bassoon players at his disposal, for example near the beginning of the 5th movements of Symphonie Fantastique where he took the bold and historic step of writing 4 individual bassoon parts:

A little later in the fifth movement lies the second of the two major bassoon audition excerpts:

Here the bassoons accompany the Eb clarinet solo.  The tempo varies, and so does the type of tonguing used.  It's possible to single tongue if the tempo is on the moderate side.  Often, however, double tonguing is necessary.  Some musicians believe that it's important to think of the sixteenths as 3 sets of duplets per beat rather than as 2 sets of triplets per beat.  The rhythm is identical, but the emphasis is different.  In the duplet version, emphasis is on the first and third sixteenth note of each set.  In the triplet version, emphasis is on the first and fourth sixteenth of each group of sixteenths.  Most bassoonists think in triplets, as far as I know, even though it appears that Berlioz preferred the duplet approach, since he did not write a "3" above the first 3 sixteenths of each group to indicate a triplet approach.  This is a minor detail, perhaps, but one never knows when it might be significant to an audition committee or a conductor.

I recommend practicing this excerpt with a metronome.  It's particularly challenging to keep the tempo steady from one before 64 to the end of the excerpt.  There is sometimes a tendency to slow down at 64 when the rhythm changes. 

Soon after the above sixteenths is a long-winded exposed passage for all 4 bassoons:

This passage is doubled in the cellos and basses.  Once again, intonation is critical, and a good way to practice this is with a sound drone producing a C.  Many of the notes in this passage are troublesome pitch-wise for bassoonists, but that's no excuse.  With a good reed and flexible embouchure, it's very possible to play all notes on the bassoon well in tune.  The passage diminuendos to ppp.  That means using less air and a loose, open embouchure (while taking less of the reed into your mouth) to bring the pitch down where it belongs.  If you check the score you'll see that the cellos hold the low C one measure longer than the bassoons and basses.  That sometimes causes bassoonists to hang on to the C too long.  It's better to allow the cellos to finish the passage, as Berlioz requested.

The Dies Irae theme comes next, played by all 4 bassoons and 2 tubas:

Each note has an accent, and that's the most important aspect of these Dies Irae passages other than intonation.  As I've said before in this blog, I do not like to change reeds in the middle of a piece.  However, this is one of those passages which really might call for a special reed, one that plays loudly and in tune in the extreme low range.  I did not change reeds during our recent performances, but I used this passage to test new reeds for the piece, and the reed I chose was strong in the low range so that switching reeds was unnecessary.

Although the tubas may easily outblast the bassoons, the bassoons do have the physical advantage of being located closer to the front of the stage, so we probably can be heard somewhat.  Is it OK to allow a bit of buzz to creep into one's sound for this passage for extra "edge" and projection?  Maybe.

The bassoons participate enthusiastically in the Witches' Round Dance:

This excerpt was my sight-reading for my Performer's jury (the junior year jury which determines candidacy for the Performer's Certificate) at Eastman, interestingly.  It's easy to become entangled in the eighth notes after 72, so some wood-shedding helps (if it's not sight-reading, that is).

Shortly thereafter the bassoon section engages in a round with the cellos.  The cellos begin two measures before the bassoons enter at 3 after 76:

Clarity and incisiveness, even as the passage diminuendos to an eventual ppp, seem appropriate here as the whirlwind winds down.  

The following trill passage which begins in the fourth bar of 83 has been known to make an appearance on an audition or two:
One very common mistake that woodwind players make on this passage is to make the eighth note trills (which begin on the fifth full bar of the passage, or 9 bars after 83) sound as though the trills are actually grace notes before the beat.  Yes, it's easier to play it that way, but that's not what Berlioz wrote.  He wanted the trills on the beat.  I think it's helpful to think of those eighth note trills as triplets so that the "trill" (which really is just a triplet at this fast tempo) falls on the beat.  Also keep in mind that the seven bars before 84 are marked p leggiero.  Those eighth notes often sound a little too frantic for p leggiero.

With Symphonie Fantastique Berlioz managed to revolutionize not just orchestral music, but also orchestral bassoon playing.  It's so hard to believe that it was written 188 years ago, on the cusp of the Romantic era!

2 months ago |
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This weekend's Columbus Symphony program was varied and exciting, to say the least, combining French impressionism with a world premier and a Mozart masterpiece:

DEBUSSY: Nocturnes
MOZART: Concerto No. 23 in A Major for Piano and Orchestra, K. 488
HADDAD: Risala
DEBUSSY: La mer 
encore: RAVEL: Pavane pour une enfant defunte

Interestingly, the most hair-raising passage for me on the entire program was this (from the encore, the Ravel Pavane):
from Ravel: Pavane

At first glance this passage looks innocuous, except for that ppp dynamic marking.  (We never know whether or not to take such a dynamic marking seriously, especially as players of the bassoon, an instrument famous for its limited dynamic range.  But in this program full of French impressionism, yes, the dynamics are to be taken very literally!)  Oftentimes a ppp dynamic implies the absence of vibrato, since vibrato tends to make a passage stand out more.  Upon close observation, it may become clear that there is no time to breathe at letter B before beginning the ppp passage, especially if the player's goal is to linger as long as possible on the taper of the A2 at the end of the phrase before B.  Not being able to breathe certainly doesn't help matters!  By the time I reached the end of the E3 one measure after letter B (with a slow tempo) I had no choice but to breathe before the next note (A2).  Snatching a quick, desperate breathe right before a ppp A2 is somewhat less than ideal!  The calmness required for controlling the bassoon at ultra soft dynamic levels does not go hand-in-hand with gasping for the air required to sustain life!  (And it wasn't quite that simple; as bassoonists often do, I had to expel air before inhaling, and as you can see by looking at the part, there is really no time allowed in the music to accomplish any of this!)

This reminds me of one of the most significant concepts I learned from my teacher K. David Van Hoesen.  During my freshman year at Eastman he constantly stressed the importance of being relaxed in order to produce the best results on the bassoon.  As in the above-described passage, we are often anything but relaxed when the proverbial chips are down!  We are most likely to be sweating, tense, and so overcome with worry that our brains shut down!  Bassoonists often tighten the embouchure inadvertently in such situations, sending the pitch skyward.  Playing sharp is all too common among bassoonists under pressure.  The instrument reacts very easily to the slightest changes in embouchure and air, which is both our blessing and our curse.

For the above passage, the soft dynamic actually requires a tighter embouchure.  However, that must be coupled with a significant decrease of air in order to produce the desired dynamic at the proper pitch.  If the bassoonist is a nervous wreck, the embouchure often tightens but the player fails to decrease the air, thus raising the pitch.  But, as K. David Van Hoesen taught me, being a nervous wreck is not allowed!  Playing the bassoon requires relaxation. Perhaps this is one of the most difficult lessons to learn.

What most bassoonists would think of when faced with this program, though, is probably the "triple-tonguing" in La Mer.  Is there really any such thing as triple tonguing?  As far as I know, what we call "triple tonguing" is really just double tonguing with some of the accents falling on the "ka" (or "ga") syllable.
from Debussy: La Mer (tempo ~ 105 per beat; 3 beats per measure)
The sixteenth note triplets one measure before 25 above may be articulated like this, with emphasis as indicated: "TA ka ta KA ta ka TA ka ta KA ta ka TA ka ta KA ta ka TA".  The only difference between double-tonguing and triple tonguing is that in double-tonguing, the emphasis is on the first note, the third note, the fifth note, the seventh note, etc., with the dominant TA syllable being used for all emphasized notes.  In so-called triple-tonguing, the first, the fourth, the seventh, the tenth, etc. notes are emphasized, and the first is the TA syllable while the fourth is the KA syllable.  The reason some bassoonists consider triple tonguing to be more difficult is because of the challenge of emphasizing the KA syllable which, for many double-tonguers, is considerably weaker than the TA syllable.

It's easy to resolve that problem.  Just spend as much time practicing "Ka-ta-ka-ta-ka-ta......" as you spend practicing "Ta-ka-ta-ka-ta-ka........".   Sometimes I even practice (slowly) beginning ALL notes with the Ka syllable, just because the Ka is so much weaker than the Ta which we use all the time. The Ka syllable needs considerable attention to make up for its neglect relative to the Ta syllable.

Bassoonists tend to spend a great deal of time fretting over those triple tongued passages.  Yet it's nearly impossible to actually hear those passages on recordings.  Perhaps there are other passages more exposed and therefore more deserving of our attention, like this one:

From Debussy: La Mer
This is in a slow 6/8 tempo with 6 beats per measure.  I think it's challenging to project on this solo, especially while attempting to honor Debussy's dynamic marking of p and leaving plenty of room for crescendo on the last 3 beats of the solo.  This solo is rarely prominent enough on recordings, partially due to the orchestration in which the bassoon seems to be easily buried underneath strings and harps. My recommendation is to focus on the expressive quality of the solo rather than worrying too much about the p dynamic.  (That's not what I did, however.  I worried too much about the p dynamic.)

Basssoonists vary regarding reed usage during a concert.  I much prefer to use one reed for an entire concert, but in the real world that's not always possible or reasonable.  For this program I used two reeds.....a "normal" one and an easier-to-control one.  For the Mozart Piano Concerto No. 23 with its marvelous bassoon writing, I used the more soloistic (normal) reed.  For the Debussy Nocturnes I used the easier-to-control reed.  This is why:

From Debussy: Nocturnes
There's nothing worse than an uncooperative reed for this type of passage, which must fade into nothing.  I'll admit that I spent considerable time figuring out which reed to use for this.  Also, I recommend using the whisper key lock here to avoid any possible issues having to do with a wayward whisper key.  Moving the fingers in a calm, relaxed fashion also helps.

Here's another reason for the easier-to-control reed:

From Debussy: Nocturnes
The bassoon imitates the oboe in the two identical passages before 21 above, with the second one marked piu p with a decrescendo.  It's very quiet, and the diminuendo fades to nothing.  Although it might work with a "normal" reed, it could be risky.

The very opening also benefits from an easier-to-control reed:

Calmness is especially called for here, with ultra smooth transitions from one note to the next.  I debated which fingering to use for G#2 and finally decided to use the alternate (thumb) fingering.  It was really a toss-up, and that interval (from C#3 down to G#2) was the one I was most concerned about sounding smooth enough.

And here's yet another reason for that reed:

From Debussy: Nocturnes
Each of these measure-and-a-half long solos has a dynamic marking ranging from p to piu p to pp diminuendo.  Notably, the highest dynamic is p.  Only a superb reed is capable of producing these dynamic variations.  The bassoonist has a decision to make here about how to finger the grace note G#.  It's possible to use the standard fingering, but to me that usually sounds awkward, and I don't use it because there are better options.  I used the whisper key lock and the high A key with the F# trill key for the G#.  This sounded easy and it was easiest to control.  It was in tune but required careful listening because the pitch was easily thrown off.  My second choice would have been to use the high A key and the high C key for the G#, but its pitch tended to be a bit flat on my bassoon.

For decisions like this, I record myself using my phone's recording app.  Lately I've been recording orchestral passages using different reeds to make reed choices.  In fact, I now make sure my phone is nearby for recording whenever I practice.  This was inspired by a blog post I read entitled Practicing without feedback is like bowling through a curtain by Jason Haaheim, principal tympanist of the Metropolitan Opera Orchestra.  Even though we THINK we hear ourselves accurately when we play our instruments, we actually lack the ability to provide ourselves with the informative and useful feedback offered by recordings, teachers, and mock audition committees.  I've always heralded the value of recording oneself, and throughout my life I've recorded my practicing from time to time.  Now I do it constantly.

One thing that I've noticed as I progress through my career is that if I feel that I've left no stone unturned in my other words, if I've recorded my practicing, if I've used a tuning drone, if I've listened to recordings of the rep I'm learning and studied the scores as needed, if I've made and tested plenty of reeds, if I've woodshedded the technical passages, if I've done everything I know of to do to prepare......then that calmness which my teacher insisted upon has a chance to prevail.

3 months ago |
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reed #89 made on March 30, 2018 (the 89th day of the year)
For some reason I feel compelled to strictly adhere to my "Reed-a-Day" rule.  This harkens back to my college days when an oboe-playing friend informed me of his famous teacher's instructions to make two reeds a day.  My friend ended up in one of the world's top orchestras.  Was it because he made two reeds every day?  We'll never know, but we do know that making two reeds a day was what he was doing when he won the audition (and beyond).

When I was in high school I wrote to a world famous bassoonist who, in his reply, advised me to become an ace at reed-making.  And that was the extent of his advice!  The best way to become an ace is to make a lot of reeds, assuming your method and tools are sufficient.  Making a lot of reeds also ensures that you'll always have many reeds to choose from rather than being stuck with whatever you happen to have.

Since bassoon reeds last a lot longer than oboe reeds (and take a lot longer to make) I adjusted the requirement for a bassoonist to ONE reed a day. 

For regular classical concert weeks, each of my reeds lasts barely one week.  The reed still plays after a week and can be used for things like pops concerts if there are no solos, but the reed no longer has the degree of control it had when it was brand new.  This may vary for other bassoonists.  (I seem to have a component in my saliva which very rapidly breaks down bassoon reeds.)

This week I had a lot of catching up to do, since I had fallen behind on my Reed-a-Day rule due to the demands of my symphony schedule.  Yesterday I made seven reeds at once.  The reason I try to avoid that is because after the first couple of reeds I become impatient and therefore less careful.   As I progressed through the seven reeds I became increasingly aware of how long it had been since I had sharpened my profiler blade.  Those who reed this blog regularly already know that I have an aversion to sharpening the profiler blade.  But I'm reasonable enough, during rare moments of lucidity, to realize that it's in my best interests to sharpen it.

So I did it; I sharpened my profiler blade without my usual preceding fretting.  However, perhaps because I was so cavalier about this particular blade-sharpening event, I ran into a snag.  Something was not quite right when I re-installed the blade, but I could not for the life of me figure out what was wrong.

I re-read my notes from my reed lessons with Norman Herzberg, hoping for a clue.  I double checked the drawings I had made when I first learned to sharpen the blade.  I looked at the photo I had taken with my phone right before I took the blade assembly apart (to be used as a reference) and realized I needed a photo of a different angle.

Finally it dawned on me that I had written about blade sharpening several times on my blog, with photos and in-depth explanations.  So I consulted my blog.  (I had always hoped that this blog would prove to be useful for something.)  Sure enough, I found the exact photo I needed to solve my problem.  This is it:

Using the blue pie-shaped shim to check the blade height
In case you're curious, my mistake was that I had placed the cutting shaft as far back as it would go instead of as far forward as it would go.  It's a good thing I had plenty of photographic instruction to refer to.  If your reed-making equipment requires similar maintenance, I highly recommend taking copious notes and photos to be used later.  I also learned a lesson......if I sharpened the blade as often as I'm supposed to, I'd never forget how to do it!  

3 months ago |
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1.  Practice with a drone.

Playing in tune is a constant goal of all conscientious musicians.  If a bassoonist just sits back and allows the notes on the bassoon to fall where they may, inaccurate intonation will surely result due to the inherent imperfections of the instrument.  In order to play in tune, bassoonists must constantly adjust the embouchure and the air stream (this is often done subconsciously).  Using an electronic tuner to check the pitches of individual notes may be effective, but the problem with using a visual tuner is that the player's eyes are used to assess whether or not the player is in tune.  On the other hand, using a drone forces the player to use the ears.  There are several online drone sources such as this one.  If you haven't used a drone before, just begin by matching the pitch of the drone.  Then practice scales, arpeggios and melodies while the drone is producing the pitch of the tonic (the first note of the scale).

2.  Practice long tones (ALWAYS with a drone or tuner).

Long tones are essential for the development of control over the embouchure and the air stream.  There is quite simply no other way to develop the steady air stream necessary for mastery of the bassoon.  At first, practice steady, controlled long tones using straight tones, and later add crescendos and diminuendos, always with a drone or tuner to ensure accurate intonation. 

3.  Practice with a metronome.

A steady pulse provides the foundation for rhythmic accuracy.  When playing in an ensemble with other musicians, it's easy to go with the flow, allowing the conductor and/or the ensemble to provide the pulse.  When each musician in the ensemble is also tuned in to his or her own internal pulse, the result can be a very tight and impressive ensemble.  However, for auditions and other types of solo performances, the player has no choice but to rely upon his or her own internal pulse.  This can be daunting if steadiness of pulse and rhythm has been neglected.

 The metronome is the obvious tool to use in strengthening (and testing) your internal pulse.  To test your internal pulse, use the metronome to provide the offbeats so that you must provide the downbeats, or set the metronome to one beat per measure so that you must provide accurate subdivisions within each measure.   Once the metronome is turned off, many musicians find it helpful to move slightly to the beat (such as with discreet foot tapping, for example).  It's harder to ignore one's internal metronome when there is a physical component to it (such as foot tapping).

4.  Practice scales and arpeggios.

The practicing of scales and arpeggios develops the fundamental building blocks of a musician's technique.  Listen acutely for clean transitions from one note to the next while thinking of each scale as a beautiful melody with the notes matching one another in tone quality.  This enables development as a technician and as a musician simultaneously.  The careful practice of scales and arpeggios pays huge dividends, resulting in the smoothness which is often elusive to bassoonists.  Move your fingers as little as possible (always keeping them as close as possible to the holes and keys of the bassoon) for efficiency.  Play your scales and arpeggios with a drone to ensure accurate intonation.

5.  Record your playing. 

If you record your playing and then listen to the recording, much will be revealed.   The way you sound to yourself while playing is NOT the same as the way you sound to a listener other than yourself.  Think of listening to a recording of your own voice sounds very different from the way it sounds to you while you are speaking.  If you really want to discover the flaws in your playing, then recording yourself is the key to thorough self-evaluation.

Recordings can make it easy to measure your progress.  Make an initial recording, then listen to it to decide what improvements to make.  Practice the improvement, then record again.  Since it's unlikely that this will be your final product, decide what further changes to make and repeat the process.  Do this a few times (maybe over the course of a few days, or maybe in one day) and you'll be able to listen to the recordings of your progress. This may seem time consuming, but it's very effective.

Also, recordings can be helpful in choosing the best reed for a passage.

6.  Become a master reed maker.

It goes without saying that the quality of a bassoonist's reeds can make or break a performance (or even a career, if that performance happens to be an audition!).  A successful bassoonist needs a steady supply of good reeds to choose from.   If you want to become a better reed maker, then make more reeds.  Each reed you make teaches you more about how to deal with the temperamental vegetable which controls our outcomes.

Unless you have a reliable and satisfactory reed source which you know is going to outlive you, it's advisable to become your own reedmaker and to make tons of reeds.

7.  Practice vibrato.

Yes, all advanced bassoonists use vibrato, but how many of us actually practice it?  Although used for musical expression, vibrato is a technique which benefits from development (even though we like to think of it as a naturally occurring phenomenon).  To begin, set the metronome on 60, pick a note, and begin pulsating the air stream with sudden steady bursts of air once on each beat.  Then produce two steady pulses for each beat, then three, then four, then five per beat.  Next set the metronome on 72, and practice slow scales in whole notes or half notes with 4 pulsations per beat.

The long tones (see number 2 above) are to be practiced at first without vibrato, since it's essential for the bassoonist to learn to control the straight tone before adding vibrato.  Once the straight tones are mastered, practice long tones with vibrato.....sometimes with a steady pulsation of vibrato and other times beginning with no vibrato or minimal vibrato and gradually increasing and then decreasing its intensity and pulse.

You'll notice that the notes on the bassoon vary regarding ease of producing vibrato.  Some notes on the bassoon are actually easier to control with vibrato than without.  The goal, of course, is to gain control of each note on the instrument with and without vibrato, and to be able to modify the vibrato according to musical requirements.....sometimes the music calls for intense, earth-shaking vibrato, while the opposite extreme calls for barely perceptible vibrato (or none at all).  Methodical practice of vibrato will ensure that the player has control of vibrato on each note of the instrument.

How is bassoon vibrato produced?  Some say it's produced in the abdomen and some say it's produced in the larynx.  Even when it is produced abominably, there are sympathetic vibrations which appear higher, such as in the neck, and sometimes the bassoon itself moves with the vibrato.  The source seems to vary depending upon the speed of the vibrato.....the faster the vibrato, the higher the source (faster vibrato seems to be coming more from the larynx than the abdomen). 

8.  Listen to great musicians.

In order to learn to be a fine musician, it's necessary to expose yourself to many examples of world class musicianship as expressed by vocalists, pianists, string players, etc.  Whenever possible, attend live performances.  The rest of the time, make use of YouTube and other sources.....there's no excuse these days for musical ignorance.  The finest musical examples imaginable are available 24 hours a day, free of charge.  Each time we listen to a great performance, our musical intuition is bolstered subconsciously.  The bassoon can be a challenging instrument to play at times, but that's no excuse to allow musical standards to fall by the wayside.  The inspiration derived from great instrumentalists and vocalists helps keep us on the right track. are a musician first, a bassoonist second.

6 months ago |
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The optimal bassoon playing position is established without the bassoon.  Many musicians are familiar with the Alexander Technique which basically teaches people to release unwanted muscle tension while sitting, standing or moving.  Problems such as carpal tunnel syndrome and repetitive strain injuries, all too common among musicians, are often alleviated using the Alexander Technique.

This is an example of what it looks like to apply the Alexander Technique to the act of sitting:

This is the ideal bassoon playing all that remains is adding the bassoon and then placing the arms in playing position.

The above sitting posture should be absolutely unaffected by the introduction of the bassoon and the insertion of the reed into the mouth.  Obviously the arms must be moved in order to accommodate the instrument, and the positioning of the arms should be as natural and relaxed as possible.

the posture should NOT be affected by the bassoon

I'm no expert on Alexander Technique, but I've had a few lessons and found them to be immensely beneficial.  I've spent a lot of time working with students on playing position since I'm convinced that it makes a difference.   I begin by asking the student to sit comfortably in the chair with good posture as indicated by the photo at the top of this post.  Then the bassoon is brought into that playing position.  It's challenging to talk students into not moving the body to accommodate the bassoon!  The goal is to adjust the bassoon, not the player.  The seat strap may be manipulated up and down as well as backward and forward in the chair to place the bassoon in the right position. 

Additionally, I advise my students to position the bassoon high enough so that when the reed is inserted into the mouth, all of the pressure on the reed is applied from above.  The jaw should be dropped and prevented from pushing up on the reed.  If the bassoon is positioned too low, the jaw will automatically push up on the reed, constricting the sound and raising the pitch.  The lower lip supports and surrounds the reed, but the pressure on the reed is felt in the top lip and the top front teeth.


To me the playing position includes the position of the reed as it enters the mouth.  If I see a student's reed entering at the lower lip, I can be sure that the student will be inadvertently pushing up on the reed.  (It's better, I think, if the reed hits the top lip as it enters the mouth.)   I often demonstrate (or ask the student to demonstrate) how the sound improves when the pressure is applied only from above.  This is accomplished by raising the bassoon, dropping the jaw, and applying pressure only on top of the reed.  This is the intersection of embouchure and playing's impossible for me to talk about embouchure without also discussing the point of entry of the reed into the mouth, which is also part of the playing position.  (When teaching bassoon embouchure specifically, I instruct students to wrap their lips over their teeth and drop the jaw back as far as it will go, creating an overbite.  Pressure is applied to the top of the reed, and pushing up with the jaw is best avoided.)

This is the playing position and embouchure which I think enables a desirable bassoon sound.  The abdomen is free to expand for breathing and vibrato and the reed is allowed to vibrate while being dampened on top for a robust yet round sound.  The lack of tension in the playing position will most likely prevent any performance-related injuries.

6 months ago |
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blade from Herzberg bassoon reed profiler

10.  You've laid the groundwork to make the task as daunting as it can possibly be.  You've hidden your notes about how to sharpen the blade, you've stashed your diamond sharpening stone in an unknown location, and you have no idea what you did with the photos you took of each step last time you sharpened........

diamond sharpening stone and its leather sheath

9.  You know that you're supposed to sharpen the blade after 50 pieces of cane have been profiled, but you pretend you've lost count.... even though you number each reed.  The guilt can be paralyzing.

8.  Since you don't sharpen the blade very often, you know you're not very good at it.   In fact, it's entirely possible that you suck at blade sharpening even more than you realize.

7.  You are never really sure if the burr is there (and if it IS there, it certainly isn't very obvious).

6.  Since you aren't sure you actually have a burr, you sure as heck also don't know when it's been successfully removed.

5.  A newly sharpened profiler blade could very well result in reeds which are too thin.

4.  If you sharpen the blade often enough, eventually there will be  nothing left of it.

Keep doing this, and eventually there'll be nothing left!

3.  Blade sharpening takes too much time, so your schedule won't allow it.

2.  It's unlikely that your colleagues are whispering behind your back about your neglect of your profiler blade.

1.  Most people don't go around sharpening profiler blades ever.......geez.  It's not fair.

the blade installed in the profiler, where it belongs

And by the way, I'm gearing up to sharpen my profiler blade.  This post will hopefully result in action, now that I've exposed my excuses.

6 months ago |
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