Used, Broken, & Unwanted
Laura Cetilia, cello, autoharp, voice, and electronics
Estuary Ltd. CD
A live recording from 2013 made in Providence, Rhode Island, Used, Broken, and Unwanted demonstrates to good effect the wide-ranging timbral palette and drone-based structures that artist Laura Cetilia explores. The title track makes use of repetition, not in the symmetrical fashion of process-driven minimalism, but to create an undulating undergirding for the wisps of vocal and cello melodies that sporadically emerge. This elegantly segues into the exquisitely fragile “Thrum/Pin.”
“Plucked from Obscurity” makes efficacious use of pizzicato; the electronics with which it contends range from the bell-like to the percussive. Particularly lovely is the delicate album closer “Tears of Things,” in which the main, initially pizzicato-driven, ostinato is gradually supplanted by sweeping guttural electronics and an accumulation of upper register sustained notes.
In the surprisingly burgeoning field of cellists who sing, Cetilia is a distinctive one. Alternately penetrating and atmospheric, Used, Broken, and Unwanted is a stimulating listen throughout.
Looking Back – Flute Music of Joseph Schwantner
Innova Records (Innova 919)
Jennie Oh Brown, flute; Jeffrey Panko, piano;
Karin Ursin, flute and piccolo?; Janice MacDonald, flute and alto flute; Susan Saylor, flute and bass flute
Joseph Schwantner has written a substantial body of work featuring flutes. On her Innova recording Looking Back, flutist Jennie Oh Brown provides superlative performances of several of these compositions. Brown’s interpretations are vividly detailed, presenting the various nuances of Schwantner’s scores in enthusiastic and vital fashion (one is recommended to flutist and composer Cynthia Folio’s liner notes; they provide excellent analysis and detailed descriptions of both compositional and technical aspects of the pieces at hand).
The title work, composed in 2009 and dedicated to the memory of legendary flutist and teacher Samuel Baron, is a case in point. The first movement is a challenging duet with the estimable pianist Jeffrey Panko. They revel in contrapuntal dialog and cascading virtuosic doubled lines. The middle movement is a solo, which involves various extended techniques, including overblowing in the altissimo register, singing and speaking into the instrument, and stabbing accents. The final movement “Just Follow …” builds a lattice of ascending scalar interplay between flute and piano, sending the music aloft in a final valediction.
Black Anemones, another duo, revels in sumptuous harmonies, punctuated by piano octaves, with melodies that feature the flute’s lower register, played in sultry fashion by Brown. The short work Soaring has a more dissonant palette, with upper register punctuations and fleet-fingered runs culminating in a dazzling passage of repeated notes and a final flourish.
The flute quartet Silver Halo ups the ante and reprises the various playing techniques found in the other works, with several more added for good measure. Schwantner is a master colorist: the abundant variety of timbral combinations and imaginative doublings found in Silver Halo amply attest to this. Brown plays beautifully, and she is abetted by excellent colleagues: Karin Ursin, Janice MacDonald, and Susan Saylor. A compliment disguised as a minor quibble: one wants more! The disc clocks in at less than three quarters of an hour; it might have been nice to include another chamber work with flute. That said, Schwantner and Brown provide us with plenty to consider and savor: Looking Back is a winner of a recording.
Nicholas Deyoe, Clint McCallum
Populist Records has released a limited edition 10 inch red vinyl recording by Los Angeles-based trombonist Matt Barbier titled FACE|RESECTION. The record features two short pieces by Nicholas Deyoe and Clint McCallum. According to the liner notes: “Both works explore hyper industrial regularity that sonically functions on the imperfect regularities created by an organic body.” Matt Barbier is a founding member of both gnarwhallaby and Trio Kobayashi, two local new music ensembles, and he has also appeared in the widely-praised opera Hopscotch.
Side A of FACE|RESECTION contains Facesplitter (2011/2014) by Nicholas Deyoe and this begins with loud, rough tones that oscillate in dynamics and pitch, much like a motor running or the hearing of some nearby industrial process. At times the sound approaches a kind of snarl that might be some fantastic beast or perhaps a group of synchronized air wrenches. At 3:32 there is an extended musical tone, eventually replaced by more rough, industrial voicing. The wide diversity of sounds – and the strength required to produce them – is impressive. FACE|RESECTION, as written by Nicholas Deyoe is at the ragged edge of intonation and technique, and adds a challenging new vocabulary to trombone playing.
Side B of the record is Bowel Resection (2011), by Clint McCallum and this has a similarly rough, industrial tone but is more consistent in pitch and texture. The sound is a continuous growl and reminiscent of a fast motorboat or a racing car. The pitch varies, speeding up and down in jumps, as if an engine is being tuned for maximum power. The circular breathing by Matt Barbier is extraordinary and surely ranks as an athletic achievement – aspiring trombone players should be required to hear this piece. Bowel Resection is a convincing musical portrait of internal combustion heard close up.
FACE|RESECTION is available as a collectible 10 inch vinyl disk, complete with eye-catching cover art from Populist Records. The two pieces can also be streamed here.
John Luther Adams
John Luther Adams, electronics; Glenn Kotche, percussion
In the Alaskan Inupiaq language, Ilimaq means “spirit journeys.” One can readily hear how John Luther Adams seeks to embody the many facets of the spirit journey on his album of the same name: the shamanic, the dream state, the heroic quest, et cetera. Powerful drumming from Wilco percussionist Glenn Kotche is juxtaposed with atmospheric, at times ominous sounding, electronics from Adams. Kotche is a marvelous collaborator; throughout his playing is rhythmically sure and dynamically supple.
Given that there are two participants, instead of the full symphony orchestra found on Adams’s recent Become Ocean or the bevy of percussionists who populate his signature work Inuksuit, it is impressive how comparatively epic the scope and soundscape of Ilimaq are. This more intimate piece can go toe to toe with some of the composer’s largest works, and that’s saying something. Ilimaq is one of 2015’s finest releases: recommended.
Music of Philip Glass
Paris-based artist Nicolas Horvath has released a new CD on the Naxos Grand Piano label titled Glassworlds 2 featuring the complete Philip Glass piano etudes, numbers 1 through 20. The etudes were begun in the mid-1990s by Glass to expand the repertoire of new music for what had become an active concert schedule for solo piano. These pieces were written after the success of Einstein on the Beach and the scoring of Koyaanisqatsi and represent something of a return by Philip Glass to his early studies as a student of Nadia Boulanger. Etudes 1 through 10 were written during the 1990s in between other works such as Hydrogen Jukebox, String Quartet No. 5 and Symphony No. 2.
These first ten etudes, known together as Book I, are technically challenging – but they are at a distinct stylistic distance from the early minimalism of, say, Music With Changing Parts that famously features repetition, limited dynamic range and static harmonies. Etude No. 1, for example, begins with four strong chords followed by rapid trilling and a crescendo-decrescendo style in the passage work that is reminiscent of the great 19th century piano virtuosi. There is a detectable echo of early minimalism here but it has been subordinated to requirements of a more demanding and expressive technique, masterfully provided on this CD by Nicolas Horvath. Etudes 3 and 4 are even more dramatically phrased, almost as if they were lifted from a piano concerto.
Etude 6 has a powerful emotional component – as well as a touch of pathos – that also lends itself to a more passionate interpretation. This etude has become a favorite of Nicolas Horvath, as he writes in the liner notes: “The only recording of Book I which was available for many years did not excite me, but while attending a recital in which the composer himself performed a selection I radically changed my view, inspired by Glass’ own poetical pianism, and helped by the hall’s acoustic, my instinct recreated them as if they were performed in a Lisztian or Rachmaninov-like manner and I suddenly understood their immense potential.”
Book 2 – Etudes 11 through 20 – were composed over a longer time period, from about 2000 onward to 2013. The music of Book 2 has a completely different point of view, as Philip Glass writes: “The first ten really have a pedagogical aspect to them for my own development. The second set have nothing or very little to do with that. I began working in the world of ideas… I did not put restrictions on the technique.” Etude 12, for example, opens with strong repeating figures that impart a complex, questioning feel along with cross currents and a swirling, unsettled aspect. Etude 13 is a frantic, slightly out of control piece, filled with powerful scales running up and down that seem almost disoriented at times. By contrast, Etude 16 is smooth and restrained, with a calm, reflective feeling that is beautifully brought out by the sensitive playing of Nicolas Horvath. Number 19 is slower with a series of single, deliberate notes in the bass line combined with nicely articulated counterpoint in the upper registers that produce a more contemporary feel. There is more variety in the Book 2 etudes and more scope for expressive technique.
Nicolas Horvath, with precise playing and imaginative interpretation has made Glassworlds 2 an indispensable reference for the serious enthusiast as well as marking an important milestone in the evolution of the music of Philip Glass.
Glassworlds 2 is available on Amazon.
Chamber Music of John Burge
Ensemble Made in Canada
On his latest recording for Centrediscs, Canadian composer John Burge presents three pieces that showcase different members of Ensemble Made in Canada. Pas De Deux features violinist Elissa Lee and cellist Rachel Mercer, both playing soaring lines that serve to propel the proceedings. They then work themselves back in short angular bursts.
String Theory is another duo that has been arranged for several string instrument/piano combinations. This version is for viola and piano, played by violist Sharon Wei and pianist Angela Park. Passionate, throbbing glissandos abound in this Neoromantic work, as well as dazzling double stops and richly voiced piano chords.
Commissioned by the ensemble for their entire number, the Piano Quartet opens with repeated chords in a minimalist gesture. Contrapuntal writing interrupts this. It is only in the third movement of the piece, after a long three-movement arch (alternating slow-fast-slow tempos) has been established, that we hear this ostinato return to be resolved. Thus for Burge, minimalism is not a stylistic determination, but a musical gesture: one signature in a batch of them to be used, contravened, and ultimately unwound.
Artful composing and fine players: a good match.
Poèmes pour Mi
Bruun Hyldig Duo (Hetna Regitze Bruun, soprano; Kristoffer Hyldig, piano)
Naxos CD 8.573247
Hetna Bruun is billed as a soprano here, but she routinely sings as a mezzo. Given that Olivier Messiaen’s song cycle Poèmes pour Mi was composed for a Wagnerian soprano, Marcelle Bunlet, to sing, Bruun’s voice has the perfect combination of requirements to do it justice: a warm vocal color and a mezzo’s timbre with fine control of an extended upper register. Similarly, Kristoffer Hyldig combines traits at the piano, playing with power where needed and acting elsewhere as a reserved colorist. The 1936 composition is a love letter to Messiaen’s first wife Claire Delbos (nicknamed “Mi” because she played the violin and its top string is tuned to “E”). The CD includes another song cycle dedicated to Delbos, Chants de Terre et de Ciel (1938), one that celebrates the birth of their son Pascal in 1937. It is astonishing to be reminded that, even though both of these cycles are from relatively early in Messiaen’s career, they demonstrate most of the signatures of his mature musical language, harmonically and rhythmically. Vocalise-Étude is also included here. Of the three it is the least successfully performed, as it sits a bit higher than Bruun’s comfort zone. Still, all told, this is an impressive disc of Messiaen’s vocal music that reminds us of the prodigious feats he was capable of even early on in his career.
Cedille Records CD 90000 157
The “M” word: minimalism: oft-quoted, sometimes maligned, often misunderstood, and seldom accepted as a self-descriptor by composers. We get into ever more thorny ground as we begin to contemplate “post-minimalism:” does it describe chronology, influence, or some kind of murky musical terrain? If we are to use the descriptor for chronology, even Philip Glass suggests that his pieces departed very early from minimalism. So what are listeners to do with a release such as Filament, on which there is a 17-minute long piece of process music (Two Pages by Glass) that clearly makes much out of comparatively little? Further, what do we call pieces by the younger generation of indie classical composers (another loaded term), clearly enamored with repetition, who make up the bulk of this disc? Perhaps it is better to avoid the style tags altogether and instead say that each of the pieces on Filament is composed by a creator fascinated with repetition, but each one in a different way.
Bryce Dessner channels the instrumentation and affect of murder ballads of the Nineteenth and early Twentieth Centuries to create the rustic ostinatos of Murder Ballades. Written for a celebration of Philip Glass’s 75th birthday, Nico Muhly’s Doublespeak is designed to hearken back to the “obsessive repetition” of the 1970s, but it does so in a powerfully articulated fashion. Son Lux’s contributions, abetted by the vocals of Shara Worden (My Brightest Diamond), are brief remixes of material from the album. Filament’s high point is a high octane and highly coordinated performance of Glass’s Two Pages. A single, propulsive line that can be played by any combination of instruments: the elements couldn’t be more minimalist in conception, but the execution is anything but.
Naxos has released a new Composers Concordance CD titled Song Cycles, featuring the works of eight composers with text by eight poets. Each song cycle is comprised of two to four short selections and the subjects range from failed relationships to the classic character portraits of the Canterbury Tales. The playing and singing are beautifully realized on the entire CD and each piece convincingly carries forward its story with music and voice.
Carefully Try Balance is the first song cycle, consisting of three sections written by three different composers, all based on the poetry of Toby Roberts. The first of these, Part 1 was composed by David Gotay and begins with a strong piano chord and blustery flute passages. The clear soprano voice of Elizabeth Cherry soon joins, singing of winter weather; a metaphor for a relationship that is going cold. The flute answers each passage in the voice and the blend is very effective. The singing is precise and easy to follow, with good tone and clear annunciation. There is a chill in this that sets the stage for the sections that follow Part 2, by Zach Seely, begins with deep piano notes, dark and melancholy. The soprano enters with spoken text followed by dramatic singing whose volume and emotion approach operatic dimensions. This is the breaking up of the relationship with low, dark notes in the piano and coldly spoken words.
Part 3, by Thomas Carlo Bo, opens with a lighter, more optimistic piano line and the soprano now embarks on a more bluesy, reflective line. There is a sense of getting past the pain of the breakup, a more philosophical feel: “Life and romance can be cruel – both are over too soon.” The three sections, although separately composed, work very well together and the arc of the story is carried forward seamlessly throughout. This is also a tribute to the artful playing and singing that infuse this work. Carefully Try Balance is a fine example of the power of good writing and close artistic cooperation.
The second song cycle on the CD is Blues From an Airport Bar, composed by Gene Pritsker, with poetry by Jacob Miller and vocals by Charles Coleman. These three are reunited having appeared together on an earlier CD, Manhattan in Charcoal. The feel is similar and this four-movement work opens with a bluesy piano and Coleman’s solid baritone lamenting the departure of his former lover aboard an airplane that has just taken off. He is a poet who has lost at love and now considers his fate from an airport bar stool. There is a sad, confessional feel to this – almost Sinatra-like – as the alcohol begins its work. Movement 2 has a wonderfully tipsy line in the piano and just a bit less coherence in the lyrics as the singer drinks further into his cups. There are recriminations and regrets, but this movement ends on a questionably sincere “I wish her the best…”
Movement 3 is much slower and nicely evokes the effect of alcohol fully felt. The low notes in the piano and voice point to the depressive effect of the liquor and the lyrics meander through unconnected thoughts, honest realizations and unlikely scenarios of reconciliation. The singing here is outstanding; precise yet fully expressing that hazy combination of honest assessment and alcohol-induced fog. Movement 4 is upbeat, with a sense of release – the failure of the relationship is taken into a bigger context and the experience will become grist for the poet’s art. Blues from an Airport Bar charmingly captures the pain of a lost love in the familiar confines of an airport watering hole, the sadness, anger and alcohol perfectly reflected in the music and lyrics.
The next song cycle is titled Two Poems, by Patrick Hardish with poetry by Dorrie Weiss. The first is A Valediction and this begins with a lovely soprano solo by Patricia Sonego singing of the warmth and beauty of a summers day. The words and notes are full of the exhilaration and glories of nature. An impressive high note finishes. Before I Wake completes this song cycle and opens with a series of piano notes and chords that set a somewhat darker tone. The voice is once again clear and precise, with a text that speaks of danger and dread. Accompanied by discordant tones in the piano, the singing is dramatic and strong . Ms. Sonego has an impressive range and Two Poems displays her talents to good advantage.
The next song cycle is History by Luis Andrei Cobo with poetry by Jennifer Michael Hecht. This is in three parts, the first of which is Felonies and this opens with a series of light piano notes that hover delicately in the air. The strong soprano voice of Lynn Norris enters, now full of drama, power and a lament about loneliness, attended by a now-stormy piano. The gentle feelings return as soft piano notes reappear while a lovely melody line about companionship is heard in the voice: “I insist – we are past all harm…” All is warm and emotive, but with just a hint of regret, as if coming to terms with a complicated relationship.
On the Strength of All Conviction and the Stamina of Love is the second section and the deep, repeating piano notes in the opening establish a feeling of sadness and sorrow. The smoothly-controlled voice of Ms. Norris enters and builds to an expansive feel. Big questions and big emotions about the relationship flow out in a strong vocal line with impressive range. The last minute is particularly evocative; the singing and writing here compliment each other perfectly.
History is the final section and here a soft, syncopated piano line hints at remorse but also of looking forward. The voice and text hint at anguish but also resignation and acceptance – the final stage of the relationship. History is an emotive and touching song cycle that draws out the maximum from the simple combination of piano and voice.
Toward the Mind is next, and this song cycle is in three sections with music by Eleanor Cory. The first section, titled Poem 576 / features poetry by Emily Dickinson that begins with a rapid piano arpeggio and the stylish soprano voice of Eleanor Taylor commenting on the difference between despair and fear. This increases in complexity with long, soaring voice lines by Ms. Taylor and a churning piano accompaniment by Christopher Oldfather. At less than two minutes in length and just eight lines of text, Poem 576 / manages to capture the mysterious, haunting feel of the poem and deliver a substantial emotional punch.
The second section is Mind / with poetry by Richard Wilbur and this continues the complex and mysterious feel with an active piano and more strong soprano singing. This alternates with slower, more introspective sections in good contrast to the louder, more dramatic stretches. Mind / ends on a quiet, thoughtful piano chord.
Section 3, Inside /, is based on text by the composer and begins with a dense, restless texture in the piano combined with a powerful, continuous voice line above. The piece moves back and forth between calmness and agitation, sustaining the sense of drama. Ms. Taylor’s voice is always under control, even while reaching emphatic levels of expression and making the fade-away ending of this section most effective. Toward the Mind is a song cycle full of strong emotion and drama.
The final song cycle on this CD is Four Fragments From the Canterbury Tales, composed by the late Lester Trimble and based on the original text by Geoffrey Chaucer. Prologe opens with a lively mix of harpsichord, flute and clarinet, full of sunshine and movement, striking just the right combination of vitality and antiquity. We are transported back to the High Middle Ages – not in some dim, misty remembrance but in the radiant hopefulness of a bright Spring day, as the pilgrims gather for the start of their journey. All is buoyant, bustling and cheerful and the playing of the Circadia Ensemble is magnificent. The agile soprano voice of Melissa Fogarty brings confident clarity and a refreshing currency to the Old English words. Anyone who has struggled with Chaucer in a literature class will be delighted at the illuminating effect of the playing and singing here. Keeping with the original text (and not some modern translation) was a brilliant choice and having a copy to follow while listening adds greatly to the pleasure this music brings.
A Knyght follows and this has a more formal and courtly feel, but still with the active instrumentation weaving wonderfully complex lines around the voice. Admiration and honor are heard in the text and felt in the music. A Yong Squier is music that is full of innocence but at the same time mindful of the strength and vigor of youth – the writing for flute and voice are nicely matched here. The Wyf of Biside Bathe completes this song cycle and has a somewhat more dramatic feel as the famous character states her case for a life of sensuality and multiple marriages. This peek at medieval feminism is nuanced and finely drawn in both the text and the music.
Four Fragments From the Canterbury Tales is an appealing visit to a less cynical age. The descriptions of the pilgrims are honest – without judgment or guile – and there is something to like about all of them. The music is faithful to the charm of the poem and adds an immediacy that only increases our endearment. Four Fragments From the Canterbury Tales is a timeless text set to gorgeous music.
Song Cycles is potent reminder of the ageless appeal and power of voice matched with text, from Chaucer right through to the 21st century.
Song Cycles is available from NaxosDirect here.
Jenny Olivia Johnson
Don’t Look Back
Innova Recordings CD 925
Wellesley professor Jenny Olivia Johnson presents a program of synth-inflected songs on Don’t Look Back, her debut recording for the Innova imprint. Like many good indie classical songwriters, her formula combines beautiful sounds with stark lyrics: I like to think of it as the “Corey Dargel effect.” Very fine interpreters sing the songs: Megan Schubert, P. Lucy McVeigh, and Amanda Crider. Johnson’s performances as percussionist and electronic musician are seamlessly melded with instrumental contributions by some of the luminaries from the current indie classical scene: violinist Todd Reynolds, cellist Peter Gregson, flutist Jessica Schmitz, clarinetist Eileen Mack, and pianist Isabelle O’Connell among them. Conductor Nathaniel Berman leads the ensemble in assured renditions of the material. While plenty of composers are reveling in the electro-acoustic playground, there aren’t too many that have the orchestrator’s ear and sense of pacing possessed by Johnson. Recommended.
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