Work for chamber orchestra by Chauvon performed by Les Délices on November 23, 2014. Works for voice and chamber orchestra by Rebel and Bourgeois performed by Les Délices on November 23, 2014.
Homer’s Odyssey is one of the most famous stories in human history. On this podcast, with French Baroque ensemble Les Délices as our guide, we’ll explore the timeless tale through music.
Our podcast starts with a work not literally modeled on the Odyssey—Francois Chauvon’s fifth suite. But, as Nagy argues in her smart program notes, this music has a magical quality that listeners might easily hear as evoking the years that Odysseus spent under the spell of the goddess Calypso.
After the instrumental suite, we’ll hear a series of vocal works, for which Les Délices is joined by soprano Clara Rottsalk. We start with excerpts by Jean-Fery Rebel’s little-known opera Ulysse. We close the program with another vocal piece inspired by Odysseus: Thomas-Louis Bourgeois’ Les Sirenes. It is—as it sounds—a portrayal of the seductive singing of the Sirens, who try to lure Odysseus and his crew into harm’s way. Fortunately for our hero, their beguiling music is ultimately unsuccessful, and he continues on his journey unscathed.
Works by Mozart for voice, performed by the Boston Children’s Chorus on November 1, 2014, solo piano performed by Paavali Jumppanen, piano on February 13, 2011, and two pianos performed by Christina and Michelle Naughton, pianos on March 10, 2013.
Mozart always makes for a delightful musical menu. On this podcast, we’ll enjoy three courses, all wonderful works by Mozart.
Our appetizer comes courtesy of the Boston Children’s Chorus, who perform the “Papageno” aria from The Magic Flute to start things off. The aria is a sweet love duet between Papageno, the prince’s loyal friend and slightly goofy companion, and his newfound love—his counterpart in female form, appropriately named Papagena.
Next comes Mozart’s tenth piano sonata, in C Major. The piece was almost certainly intended for broad public consumption: though it has some challenging passagework, it is playable for an amateur audience with a piano at home, and it may even have been written with Mozart’s own aristocratic piano students in mind. We’ll hear the piece played by Paavali Jumppanen.
For our third and final course, we have Mozart’s larger-still Sonata for two pianos in D Major. It is a virtuosic work from the get-go, requiring not just great individual technique but strong coordination between the two players. We’ll hear it performed by Christina and Michelle Naughton, twin sisters who often play together.
Work for clarinet and piano by Brahms performed by Richard Stoltzman, clarinet and David Deveau, piano on January 11, 2015.
In the 1890’s, Brahms declared himself finished as a composer. He was done writing music, he said. But a trip to Meiningen, and a chance to hear the great clarinetist Richard Mühlfeld changed his mind, and he went on to write a number of pieces to showcase the extraordinary talents of this apparently self-taught woodwind player.
Brahms heard Mühlfeld on a visit and was impressed, so much so that he wrote several works for clarinet in short order. First came a trio for clarinet, piano, and cello; then, a quintet. A few years later came two sonatas, one of which we’ll hear today: the sonata in F minor, Opus 120, number 1. The first performance of the sonatas featured Brahms himself at the piano, with Mühlfeld on the clarinet.
On our podcast, we’ll hear the Mühlfeld part played by the very able clarinetist Richard Stoltzman, with David Deveau standing in for Brahms on piano. The piece lasts almost 40 minutes, and it will make up the entirety of our program.
Work for voice and piano by Schumann performed by Mark Padmore, tenor and Jonathan Biss, piano on October 12, 2014 and work for string quartet by Schumann performed by Musicians from Marlboro on March 17, 2013
Today’s podcast features two chamber pieces by Robert Schumann, the type of music you might have heard in a Romantic-era salon.
We begin with a song cycle—the form that was Schumann’s bread and butter. Schumann wrote more than 400 songs, or lieder, in his lifetime, and he is widely acknowledged as a master of the genre. The set we’ll hear today is Sechs Gedichte und Requiem, Schumann’s opus 90. The cycle consists of six poems by Nikolaus Lenau, an Austrian poet, and a contemporary of Schumann’s. The seventh movement “Requiem” is a text of mourning written by another poet.
The string quartet we’ll hear dates from 1842 when he turned his attention to chamber music and his first three string quartets. We’ll hear his opus 41, number 2, the String Quartet in F Major which has more than its fair share of creativity, making it a rewarding listen, even though it was Schumann’s very first effort in the string quartet form.
Our string quartet on this recording hails from Musicians from Marlboro. We’ll start with the song cycle, performed by tenor Mark Padmore and pianist Jonathan Biss.
Works for string orchestra and voices by Josquin Des Prez arranged by Caroline Shaw, and by Schubert arranged by Mahler, performed by A Far Cry and Roomful of Teeth on May 11, 2014.
The first work we’ll hear is Renaissance composer Josquin des Prez’s “Nymphes des bois,” a piece written in memoriam of the great composer Johannes Ockeghem, who had recently passed away. The version we’ll hear is a sensitive contemporary arrangement by Caroline Shaw for voices and strings.
The other piece on the program is a very different take on death: an arrangement by Mahler of Schubert’s string quartet “Death and the Maiden.” The string quartet was itself an adaptation of Schubert’s song of the same title, which depicts a struggle between a young maiden and the grim reaper.
The quartet, and Mahler’s adaptation of it for string orchestra, builds on the song, each expanding it in turn for greater and greater forces. The piece concludes with a tarantella, a swirling, relentless dance of somewhat ambiguous origin, fittingly linked with both courtship and death. The Schubert also features the players of A Far Cry performing.
Work for string quartet by Beethoven performed by Belcea Quartet on November 4, 2012.
In April of 1825, Beethoven became seriously ill. Bedridden, and in declining health, he feared his end might be near. As his health worsened, he wrote many of his so-called “Late Quartets” – his incredible final contributions to the art of the string quartet.
But as the weeks passed, Beethoven made a remarkable recovery. The piece we’ll hear today—his fifteenth string quartet—celebrates his return to health.
The piece’s center—emotionally, musically, and structurally—is the third of its five movements. The movement is subtitled, “Heiliger Dankgesang,” or in full: “A holy song of thanks to the divine, from one who has been healed.” The movement begins with chorale-like chords and depicts a slow but steady move from weakness to vitality and health. It is a radiant hymn of gratitude from a person who’s been given a second chance at life.
The recording we’ll hear features the Belcea Quartet, from a performance in 2012. In full, the piece runs about 45 minutes.
Works for violin and piano by Ravel, Debussy, and Saint-Saens performed by Paul Huang, violin and Jessica Osborne, piano on December 1, 2013.
The turn from 19th to 20th century was a fertile moment in French music. In the space of a few decades, artistic norms shifted dramatically, from beautifully formed, pleasingly symmetrical classicism to the mistier depictions of Impressionism.
The last piece we’ll hear is Saint-Saens’ Sonata No. 1 in D Minor. Though penned by a Frenchman in 1885, the piece sounds remarkably similar to the chamber music of Beethoven, with its substantial scale and recurring musical themes.
Before the sonata, we’ll hear two pieces that were written just a few years later, but sound like they come from another musical world. First is Ravel’s “Piece en forme de Habanera,” a work infused with the same Spanish flair that would later characterize the composer’s most famous piece, Bolero.
After the Habanera, we have another piece from early 20th century France: Debussy’s “La plus que lent.” Originally written for solo piano, this piece, too, spawned many adaptations, including the violin and piano version we’ll hear. Debussy, like Ravel, was inspired by dance: in his case, the waltz.
Works for cello and piano by Brahms performed by Wendy Warner, cello and Irina Nuzova, piano on September 28, 2014.
In September 2014, cellist Wendy Warner played a recital at the Gardner Museum, joined by pianist Irina Nuzova. The program had a distinct focus on Brahms, and on this podcast, we’ll feature three of the Brahms works.
First come two arrangements for cello of Brahms lieder. First is the languidly beautiful “Sapphische Ode,” a love song. The second song we’ll hear is “Lerchengesang,” the Song of the Lark. This is another of Brahms’ love songs, a remarkably sweet, tender melody, about hearing a lark’s song and being reminded of a special spring moment long ago.
Then, we get to the meat of the program: Brahms’ Sonata for cello and piano No. 2, in F Major. The piece opens with an exuberant first movement, with tremolos in the piano and soaring melodies in the cello.
The subsequent movements of the sonata explore a variety of different keys, harmonies, techniques, and moods. The slow movement starts curiously, with the piano voicing the main theme while the cellist plucks along, pizzicato. The final allegro is a quick, light romp, perhaps a somewhat abrupt ending to such a major piece, but one that cleverly leaves the listener wanting more.
Works for chamber orchestra by Vivaldi, Veracini, and Telemann performed by Akademie für Alte Musik Berlin on April 6, 2014.
In April 2014, the Gardner welcomed one of the most acclaimed early-music groups in the world: the Akademie für Alte Musik Berlin, known to friends and fans by the nickname Akamus.
Formed in 1982, the group has won every major international accolade for their recordings, including the Grammys, the Cannes Classical Award, and the Gramophone Award. They have also collaborated with dance companies and directors to create innovative multidisciplinary performances, and have won acclaim for their opera recordings. In the United States, they are regulars at Carnegie Hall.
We’ll hear them play three short works by the Italians Vivaldi and Veracini, followed by an overture by the German Baroque composer Telemann. All were recorded at their April 6, 2014 performance at the Gardner.
Work for string orchestra and voices by Caroline Shaw performed by A Far Cry and Roomful of Teeth on May 11, 2014. Work for chamber orchestra by JS Bach performed by the Gardner Chamber Orchestra on December 9, 2007.
When is a soloist not a soloist?
Today, we’ll hear two pieces that feature performers in soloist-like roles, but as part of a group. Both works take inspiration from the concerto grosso style—the Baroque form which contrasts small groups of players with a fuller ensemble.
The piece we’ll hear on the podcast is called Music in Common Time, and it was Caroline Shaw’s first commission, written for a “super-group” formed by combining the forces of Roomful of Teeth, Shaw’s vocal group, with A Far Cry, the Gardner’s chamber orchestra in residence; throughout the piece, the singers take on a concertino-like role, standing out from the texture while still unified as a group.
In Bach’s fourth Brandenburg concerto, for two flutes you’ll quickly notice that the flutes are not alone: though they do have an important role, the violin also vies for attention. On this recording, “team flute” has a champion in their corner: flutist Paula Robison, a renowned soloist and frequent leader of the Gardner Chamber Orchestra, the group heard on this recording from 2007. Whoever you decide is the “true” soloist, you’re sure to enjoy the ride.
First, Caroline Shaw’s Music in Common Time.
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